Mohan Srinivasarao


Contact Information

MRDC-1 4506

Dr. Mohan Srinivasarao is a Professor with the School of Materials Science and Engineering. Dr. Srinivasarao received his Ph.D. in Chemistry in 1990 from Carnegie Mellon University, a M.Sc in Applied Chemistry in 1981 from PSG College of Technology (University of Madras, India), and a B.Sc in Applied Science in 1979 from Madurai University, India.

1.  Dae Kun Hwang, Jian Zhou, Jung Ok Park, Mohan Srinivasarao and Alejandro D. Rey, “Direct and Simple Prediction of the Characteristic Properties of Liquid Crystal Anchoring from Bloch Wall Defects”, Submitted and Under Review at Soft Matter (November 2016)

2. Gautam Singh, Jinxin Fu, Dena M. Agra-Kooijman, Jang-Kun Song, M. R. Venkatesan, Mohan Srinivasarao, Michael R. Fisch, and Satyen Kumar, “X-ray and Raman Scattering Study of Orientational Order in the Nematic and Heliconical Nematic Liquid Crystals”, Accepted in PRE Rapid Communications (November 2016)

3. Karthik Nayani, Jinxin Fu, Rui Chang, Jung Ok Park and Mohan Srinivasarao, “New Director Configuration in Tactodial Droplets of Lyotropic Chromonic Liquid Crystals”, Submitted to and under reviewion at PNAS, (December 2016)

4. Xuxia Yao, Karthik Nayani, Jung Ok Park and Mohan Srinivasarao, “Orientational Order of a Lyotropic Chromonic Liquid Crystal measured by Polarized Raman Spectroscopy” J. Phys. Chem. B., 120(19), 4508-4512(2016)

5. Ping-Hsun Chu, Gang Wang, Boyi Fu, Dalsu Choi, Jung Ok Park, Mohan Srinivasarao and Elsa Reichmanis “Synergistic Effect of Regioregular and Regiorandom Poly(3-hexylthiophene) Blends for High Performance Flexible Organic Field Effect Transistors”, Advanced Electronic Materials, 2 (2), 10.1002/aelm.201500384 (2016)

6. Cornelia Rosu, Nabil Kleinhenz,, Dalsu Choi, Christopher Tassone, Xujun Zhang, Jung Park, Mohan Srinivasarao, Paul Russo, and Elsa Reichmanis, “Protein-assisted Assembly of π-Conjugated Polymers”, Chemistry of Materials, 28 (2), 573-582 (2016)

7. Jeong Yeon Kim, Karthik Nayani, Hyeon Su Jeong, Hwan-Jin Jeon, Hae-Wook Yoo, Eun Hyung Lee, Jung Ok Park, Mohan Srinivasarao and Hee-Tae Jung, “Macroscopic Alignment of Chromonic Liquid Crystals using Patterened Substrates” PhysicalChemistryChemicalPhysics,18 (15), 10362-10366 (2016)

8. K. Nayani, R. Chang, J. Fu, P. W. Ellis, A. Fernandez-Nieves, J. O. Park and M. Srinivasarao, “Spontaneous emergence of chirality in achiral lyotropic chromonic liquid crystals confined to cylinders”, Nature Communications, 6, Article number 8067 (2015).

9. A. Shams, X. Yao, J. O. Park, M. Srinivasarao, and A. D. Rey, “Disclination elastica model of loop collision and growth in confined nematic liquid crystals”, Soft Matter, 11(27), 5455-5464 (2015).

Srinivasarao vita September 2016 8

10. A. Shams, X. Yao, J. O. Park, M. Srinivasarao, and A. D. Rey, “Theory and simulation of ovoidal disclination loops in nematic liquid crystals under conical confinement”, Liquid Crystals, 42(4), 506-519 (2015).

11. A. Shams, X. Yao, J. O. Park, M. Srinivasarao, and A. D. Rey, “Nematic Liquid Crystals under Conical Capillary Confinement: Theoretical Study of Geometry Effects on Disclination Lines”, Molecular Crystals and Liquid Crystals, 612(1), 56-63 (2015).

12. Ping-Hsun Chu, Lei Zhang, Nicholas S. Colella, Boyi Fu, Jung Ok Park, Mohan Srinivasarao, Alejandro L Briseno, and Elsa Reichmanis, “Enhanced mobility and effective control of threshold voltage in P3HT-Based Field-Effect Transistors via Inclusion of Oligothiophenes”, ACS Appl. Mat.&Interfaces, 7, 6652-6660 (2015)

13. Min Sang Park, Avisheck Aiyar, Jung Ok Park, Elsa Reichmanis, and Mohan Srinivasarao, “Drain Current in Poly (3-hexylthiophene) Solutions during Film Formation: Correlations to Structural Changes”, ChemNanoMat., 1, 32-38 (2015)

14. Nabil Kleinhenz, Cornelia Rosu, Sourav Chatterjee, Mincheol Chang, Karthik Nayani, Zongzhe Xue, Eugenia Kim, Jamilah Middlebrooks, Paul Russo, Jung Ok Park, Mohan Srinivasarao and Elsa Reichmanis, “Liquid Crystalline Poly(3-Hexylthiophene) Solutions Revisited: Role of Time-Dependent Self-Assembly”, Chemistry of Materials, 27(7), 2687-2694 (2015)

15. Matthew R. Kincer, Rudra Choudhury, Mohan Srinivasarao, Haskell W. Beckham, GAD Briggs, Kyriakos Porfyrakis, and David G. Bucknall, “ Shear Alignment of Fullerenes in a Nanotubular Supramolecular Complexes”, Polymer, 56, 516-522 (2015).

16. Vivek Sharma , Matija Crne , Jung Ok Park and Mohan Srinivasarao, “Bouligand Structures Underlie Circularly Polarized Iridescence of Scarab Beetles: A Closer View”, Materials Today: Proceedings, 1S, 161–171 ( 2014 ).

17. Alireza Shams, Xuxia Yao, Jung Ok Park, Mohan Srinivasarao and Alejandro D. Rey, “Theoretical Predictions of Disclination Loop Growth for Nematic Liquid Crystals under Capillary Confinement”, Phys. Rev. E., , 90, 042501 (2014)

18. Alireza Shams, Xuxia Yao, Jung Ok Park, Mohan Srinivasarao and Alejandro D. Rey, “Mechanisms and Shape Predictions of Nematic Disclination Branching Under Conical Confinement”, Soft Matter, 10(18), 3245 (2014)

19. Jong Min Ok, Yun Ho Kim, Hyeon Su Jeong, Hae-Wook Yoo, Jung Hyun Kim, Mohan Srinivasarao, and Hee-Tae Jung, “Control of Periodic Defect Arrays of 8CB (4’-n-Octyl-4-Cyano-Biphenyl) liquid crystals by multi-directional Rubbing” Soft Matter, 9 (42), 10135 (2013)

20. Kyoung Hwan Kim, Youn-Kyoung Baek, Hwan-Jin Jeon, Mohan Srinivasarao, and Hee-Tae Jung, “Cylindrical posts of Ag/SiO2/Au multi-segment layer patterns for highly efficient surface enhanced Raman scattering,” Nanotechnology, 23(31), Article # 315302 (2012)

21. Jung Hyun Kim, Yun Ho Kim, Hyeon Su Jeong, Mohan Srinivasarao, Steve Hudson, and Hee-Tae Jung, “Thermally responsive microlens arrays fabricated with the use of defect arrays in a smectic liquid crystal”, RSC Advance, 2(17), 6729-6732 (2012)

Srinivasarao vita September 2016 9

22. Alireza Shams, Xuxia Yao, Jung Ok Park, Mohan Srinivasarao and Alejandro Rey, “Theory and modeling of nematic disclination branching under capillary confinement”, Soft Matter, 8 (43), 11135-11143 (2012)

23. Hyeon Su Jeong, Yun Ho Kim, Ji Sun Lee, Jung Hyun Kim, Mohan Srinivasarao and Hee-Tae Jung, “ Chiral Nematic Fluids as Masks for Lithography”, Adv. Mat., 24(3), 381, (2012)

24. Bharat R. Acharya, Hyunchul Choi, Mohan Srinivasarao and Satyendra Kumar, “Homeotropically aligning phase separated columnar structures for fabrication of flexible electrooptical devices”, App. Phys. Lett., 99, 221108 (2011)

25. Min Sang Park, Beom-Jin Yoon, Jung Ok Park, Satyendra Kumar and Mohan Srinivasarao, Comment on “Raman Scattering Study of Phase Biaxiality in a Thermotropic Bent-Core Nematic Liquid Crystal” Reply, Phys. Rev. Lett., 107(10), Article Number; 109802, (2011)

26. HyungGuen Yoon, Shin-Woong Kang, Matthias Lehmann, Jung Ok Park, Mohan Srinivasarao and Satyendra Kumar, “Homogenous and homeotropic alignment of bent-core uniaxial and biaxial nematic liquid crystals” Soft Matter, 7(19), 8770-75, (2011)

27. Byoungnam Park, Avishek Aiyar, Min Sang Park, Mohan Srinivasarao, and Elsa Reichmanis, “Conducting Channel Formation in Poly(3-hexylthiophene) Field Effect Transistors: Bulk to Interface” J. Phys. Chem., C., 115, 11719-26, (2011)

28. Jung Ok Park, Beom-Jin Yoon, and Mohan Srinivasarao, “Effect of chemical structure on the crosslinking behavior of bismaleimides: Rheological study”, Journal of the Non-Newtonian Fluid Mechanics, 166, 925-931 (2011).

29. Min Sang Park, Avishek Aiyar, Jung Ok Park, Elsa Reichmanis and Mohan Srinivasarao, "Solvent Evaporation Induced Liquid Crystalline Phase in Poly(3-hexyl thiophene)", JACS, 133 (19), 7244-7247 (2011).

30. Matija Crne, Vivek Sharma, John Blair, Jung Ok Park, Christopher J. Summers and Mohan Srinivasarao, "Biomimicry of Optical Microstructures of Papilio palinurus", Eur. Phys. Lett., 93(1), Art. No. 14001 (2011).

31. Min Sang Park, Yee Shan Wong, Jung Ok Park, Subbu S. Venkatraman and Mohan Srinivasarao, "A simple method for obtaining the information of orientation distribution using polarized Raman Spectroscopy: Orientation study of structural units in poly(lactic acid)", Macromolecules, 44(7), 2120-2131 (2011).

32. Lulu Song, Vivek Sharma, Jung Ok Park and Mohan Srinivasarao, "Characterization of Ordered array of Pores in a Polymer Film", Soft Matter, 7, 1890-1896 (2011).

Robert Speyer


Contact Information

Love 260

Dr. Speyer joined the MSE faculty in August, 1992 after serving on the faculty at the New York State College of Ceramics at Alfred University for six years.  He has written one book (Thermal Analysis of Materials), with another one on the way, published over 125 refereed papers and has given over 150 technical presentations.  His present research group consists of seven graduate students and one Ph.D-level scientist. Dr.

Boron Carbide Armor

Boron carbide is of great importance to the military for lightweight personal armor, and has saved countless American lives in both the Iraq and Afghanistan conflicts. The armor plates used for this application are hot-pressed, preferred by the fact that ballistic performance is strongly related to a close approach to theoretical density, and the belief that B4C, as other refractory covalent ceramics, does not sinter well.

Research by Prof. Speyer and his students over the past five years have shown this belief to be false. Using a specially-built differential dilatometer capable of heating to well over 2500°C, in-situ measurements of contraction, CTE, weight loss, and particle size have permitted elucidation of the concurrent particle coarsening processes which attenuate the driving forces for sintering. This fundamental understanding permitted use of selected flowing atmospheres at specific temperatures, and a multi-step thermal schedule, which circumvents these coarsening processes, resulting in fired densities comparable to those obtained with hot pressing.

Beyond the economies associated with pressureless sintering, the great advantage of this development is the ability to cast and sinter dense parts of complex shape. The U.S. Army Soldier Systems Center in Natick MA, as well as the Army Research Slip cast B4C green body thigh protection plate. Laboratory in Aberdeen MD have shown a great interest in this technology for their next-generation body armor, which is of a more contoured shape that cannot be formed by gang-hot pressing, as well as helmets and other body-part protection systems. More recently, pressureless-sintered specimens have been post-hot isostatically pressed to 100% of theoretical density, giving it a higher density and Vicker's hardness than commercially hot-pressed B4C, yet complex shapes can still be formed and retained. Slip casting and injection molding technologies have been developed in Dr. Speyer's laboratory to form B4C helmets and shin/thigh plates.
DARPA is funding Dr. Speyer's laboratory to develop pressureless sintering methods for nano-scale powders. [H. Lee, W. S. Hackenberger, and R. F. Speyer, J. Am. Ceram. Soc., 85 [8] 2131-2133 (2002), H. Lee and R. F. Speyer, J. Am. Ceram. Soc., 86 [9] 1468-1473 (2003), N. Cho, Z. Bao, and R. F. Speyer, J. Mat. Res., 20 [8] 2110 -16 (2005).]

Prior to the consolidation of the Ceramic, Metallurgical, and Polymer disciplines into Materials Science and Engineering, each undergraduate program entrusted classic texts to cover much of their curriculum—e.g. Kingery, Bowman, and Uhlmann's Introduction to Ceramics for Ceramists, Reed-Hill's Physical Metallurgy Principles for Metallurgists, and Rodriguiz's Principles of Polymer Systems for Polymer Scientists. To date, there is no textbook which evenly covers the combined undergraduate discipline of Materials Engineering, beyond the introductory level (e.g. books by Callister and Shackleford, which were generally written with non-materials majors as their primary audience). Materials Engineering is written with the care and patience to be the book of our discipline. This book will be important in a number of respects. Many of our prominent textbooks are out of, or going out of print, and are not being replaced by other books covering our core topics. Books that remain in print, by and large still follow the tracks of the three disciplines, imposing redundancy in presented concepts to MSE courses which follow them. With a merged curriculum, a variety of topics must be omitted to fit a four year program, which encouraged by the available textbooks, leads to choppy coverage. Materials Engineering carefully condenses and interrelates topics, so that from its efficient coverage, a breadth of topics remain well -treated as a logically-developing story. This, in turn, clears room in a curriculum for classes dealing with the cutting edge (nano and bio-materials), while a foundation based on the classical wisdom of our discipline is retained. These goals are facilitated by clear and vivid artwork, which imbue clarity with fewer words, decorating well-written chapters. The book would serve two purposes in an undergraduate curriculum. The first 5-6 chapters follow the perfection-to -imperfection progression popularly used in introductory materials texts, but in greater depth. These chapters would cover fewer topics than in the non-major course, but in great enough detail that they would not need to be repeated in courses later in the undergraduate program, in turn facilitating course consolidation. Chapters 7 nucleationthrough 11 are individually long chapters, each of which cover the major content of individual courses in the undergraduate program. This book will thus decrease the number of textbooks imposed on student budgets, and provide a friendly, unified and interconnected treatment of these topics as students work their way through the curriculum. It is expected that the book will be ready in about three years, and will have a significant impact on the Materials community.

Bridgman Crystal Growth

Dr. Speyer's group has designed and built two Bridgman single-crystal growth furnaces for TRS Ceramics for the fabrication of PMN single-crystal actuators. These actuators display ten times the displacement for a given voltage as compared to polycrystalline ceramics of the same composition. The system has sixteen independently controlled heating zones, permitting the implementation of exotic temperature gradients along the crucible, which is lowered and rotated using high-precision stepper motors. Fifty seven thermocouples are used for furnace feedback control and monitoring, including two thermocouples on the rotating stand in direct crucible contact, connected through rotary mercury contacts. The system is designed to pull crystals either by mechanical lowering (over a period of two weeks) or through morphing of the temperature profile. The software developed by Dr. Speyer has permitted a wide variety of optimization experiments to be undertaken. Based on development with these systems, TRS has been able to zone-melt single -crystal actuators so that large boules of uniform composition and hence properties may be formed. Dr. Speyer’s group has since designed a new Bridgman furnace for TRS which has a 12 mm melt zone, which will further advance the perfection and yield of these single crystals.

Thermal Analysis of Materials Textbook

This text/reference book is in its second printing, and is an essential text for the new owners of thermoanalytical instrumentation. The book bases its treatment on elementary physical chemistry, heat transfer, materials properties, and device engineering. It stands apart from other books in the field since it develops a fundamental intuition into the nuances of such instrumentation, rather than an serving as an enumeration of literature citations. The book starts with the basic concepts of heat flow, temperature measurement, furnace design, feedback control logic and electronics. The longest, and most detailed chapter follows on differential thermal analysis. It dispels much confusion about differential thermal analysis versus differential scanning calorimetry, and details the experimental methodology required to generate reproducible transformation temperatures, as well as thermodynamic and kinetic data purged of instrumental effects. The manipulation of data chapter shows how programming languages can be used to numerically differentiate, integrate, etc., thermoanalytical (and other) data. Chapters on thermogravimetry and advanced applications show how thermoanalytical data can be fit to phenomenological models to deconvolute superimposed reactions, and measure phase equilibria in multicomponent systems. The dilatometry/interferometry chapter develops topics for the most industrially relevant thermoanalytical instruments, used for thermal expansion matching of various components of a high-temperature system. The pyrometry and thermal conductivity chapters detail the radiative properties of materials at very high temperatures, and how this can be exploited for contactless temperature measurement. This treatment also fills an important gap in undergraduate engineering education, in which a great majority of undergraduate students study heat transfer calculations, but are less informed on how to perform heat transfer measurements, e.g. determining thermal conductivity, thermal diffusivity, and radiant emittance. [R. F. Speyer, Thermal Analysis of Materials, Marcel Dekker, Inc., New York, 1994.]

Radiant Efficiency of Gas Radiant Emitters

The articles which comprise this work describe the development of a one-of-a-kind evaluation facility, which was used to elucidate the necessary features of high efficiency gas radiant burners. These burners act as gas light bulbs—a fuel air mixture ignites just-downstream of a porous ceramic or refractory metal membrane, convecting heat to the solid surface which in turn radiates to a load. Using a fused silica capillary on a computer-controlled mobile stage feeding a quadrapole mass spectrometer, the flow rates and mixtures which encouraged flame liftoff could be clearly determined. Using a spectral radiometer and a numerical optimization routine, the temperatures and emittances of radiating surfaces could be accurately determined. By comparing the spectral emittance of CO2 combustion products and solid surfaces, the temperature differences between burner and exiting gas were determined, and used to explain the differences in efficiencies of a variety of commercial emitters. The role of flame support layers was divulged using specially-built burners with variable fraction closed areas. By comparing to heat transfer models, it was shown that these layers functioned to extract additional heat of combustion from exhaust gases, and increased efficiency up to the point where they excessively blocked direct radiation from the burner surface to the load. These papers displayed some excellent science, which at the same time has had direct and significant impact on the radiant burner industry, affecting emitter design and market share. [R. F. Speyer, W. Lin, and G. Agarwal, Experimental Heat Transfer, 8 [1] (1995), 9 213-245 (1996), 9 247-255 (1996).]

Rate Controlled Sintering

The concept of rate controlled sintering (RCS) was originally conceived by Palmour; furnace power is feedback controlled based on the sintering shrinkage rate of a powder compact. The significance of Dr. Speyer's work was in the development of instrumentation and software which purged experimental results of instrumental anomalies, so that the true merit of RCS could be proven. A purely radiant heating environment was used so that a much wider range of RCS schedules were possible. Dilation probe-induced specimen creep, residual sintering at the end of RCS, and thermocouple/ specimen temperature differences were eliminated by novel instrument design. Firing schedules to exacting sintered densities could be accomplished by in-situ software corrections for specimen dilation during sintering. Using pure ZnO as example, RCS was shown to form superior microstructures (minimum grain size and intragranular pore frequency) by following the most efficient thermal schedule required to achieve a desired level of densification—minimizing the time and thermal energy required for grain boundary movement. [G. Agarwal and R. F. Speyer, J. Mat. Res, 11 [3] 671-679 (1996).]

Three-Dimensional Rendering of Ternary Phase Equilibria

A software package was developed which generates a 3-dimensional ternary phase diagram representing liquidus, sub-liquidus, and solidus surfaces of the calcia-alumina-silica system, and allows user manipulation of the diagram to any selected viewpoint. A specific composition on the Gibbs triangle may be user selected, from which a rendering of the appropriate surfaces in the 3-dimensional object are rendered, as well as a user-interactive isoplethal study for that composition. A further feature is a movie-like continuously-changing rendering of isothermal sections with decreasing temperature. Both isoplethal studies and isothermal sections are user-interactive through the mouse position, generating compositions of phases and relative proportions at selected overall compositions and temperatures. The software functions as a powerful teaching tool in the visualization and understanding of ternary phase equilibria. When a description of the software was published in the American Ceramic Society Bulletin, over fifty requests for the software were immediately requested and provided. [R. F. Speyer, J. Phase Equilib., 17 [3] 186-195 (1996), Am. Ceram. Soc. Bull., 74 [11] 80-83 (1996)].

Deconvolution of Superimposed DTA/DSC Peaks

Deconvolution of superimposed x-ray diffraction peaks is an established and valuable procedure. In this paper, Dr. Speyer developed the mathematical models for fusion and decomposition reactions so that superimposed DTA/DSC endotherms could be deconvoluted using numerical optimization methods. In so doing, hidden onset temperatures, and the kinetic/thermodynamic parameters of parallel reactions can be elucidated using thermal analysis. [ R. F. Speyer, J. Mat. Res., 8 [3] 675-679 (1993).]

Fusion Paths of Complex Glass Batches with Reaction Accelerants

This work evaluated the reaction paths of five component glass batches (sand, soda ash, calcite, dolomite and feldspar) with reaction accelerants (e.g. NaCl). DTA traces of such batches have historically been of little use owing to their complexity. The merit of this work is the demonstrated methodology by which the individual reactions making up the trace could be elucidated using simultaneous thermal analysis (DTA and TG) of pairs, triples, etc. of batch constituents, x-ray diffraction, and deductive reasoning. The work showed the importance of dolomite in causing the first-formed liquid phase, and the local equilibria between the liquid phase and the sodium silicate phases surrounding remnant quartz. The glass industry has held this work in high regard, and is now an important procedure in their efforts to alter batch compositions to increase pull rates. [K. S. Hong and R. F. Speyer, J. Am. Ceram. Soc., 76 [3] 598-604 (1993), 76 [3] 605-608 (1993), M. E. Savard and R. F. Speyer, J. Am. Ceram. Soc., 76 [3] 671-677 (1993).]

Preet Singh

Professor and Associate Chair of Graduate Studies

Contact Information

RBI 246

Prior to joining MSE in July 2003 Professor Singh was a faculty member in Corrosion and Materials Engineering Group at The Institute of Paper Science and Technology (IPST) since 1996.  While in IPST Dr. Singh worked on fundamental as well as applied research projects related to the corrosion problems in the pulp and paper industry.

Meisha Shofner

Associate Professor & Associate Director, RBI

Contact Information


Dr. Meisha L. Shofner is an Associate Professor in the School of Materials Science and Engineering at Georgia Institute of Technology, joining the faculty following post-doctoral training at Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute.  She received her B.S. in Mechanical Engineering from The University of Texas at Austin and her Ph.D.

J.H. Lee, I.T. Kim, R. Tannenbaum, and M.L. Shofner, “Synthesis of Polymer-Decorated Hydroxyapatite Nanoparticles with a Dispersed Copolymer Template”, Journal of Materials Chemistry22, 11556–11560 (2012).

M.R. Schlea, C.E Meree, R.A. Gerhardt, E.A. Mintz, and M.L. Shofner, “Network Behavior of Thermosetting Polyimide/Multiwalled Carbon Nanotube Composites”, Polymer53, 1020-1027 (2012).

J. Kaur, J.H. Lee, and M.L. Shofner, “Influence of Polymer Matrix Crystallinity on Nanocomposite Morphology and Properties”, Polymer,52, 4337-4344 (2011).

R.D. Goodridge, M.L. Shofner, R.J.M. Hague, M.R. Schlea, R.B. Johnson, and C.J. Tuck, “Processing of a Polyamide-12/Carbon Nanofibre Composite by Laser Sintering”, Polymer Testing30, 94-100 (2011).

M.R. Schlea, T.R. Brown, J.R. Bush, J.M. Criss, E.A. Mintz, and M.L. Shofner, “Dispersion Control and Characterization in Multiwalled Carbon Nanotube and Phenylethynyl-Terminated Imide Composites”, Composites Science and Technology70, 822-828, (2010).

Kenneth Sandhage

Adjunct Professor

Dr. Ken H. Sandhage is the Reilly Professor of Materials Engineering. He received a B.S. (1981) in Metallurgical Engineering with highest distinction from Purdue University and a Ph.D. (1986) in Ceramics from the Massachusetts Institute of Technology.

  • Melony Ochieng


I. Shape-Preserving Chemical Transformation: “Materials Alchemy”

A.  Shape-Preserving Liquid/Solid Displacement Reactions
Example: High-Melting, Robust ZrC/W Rocket Nozzles via the “Displacive Compensation of Porosity” Process
B.  Shape-Preserving Gas/Solid Displacement Reactions
Example: Highly-Porous Si Films on Dense, Si Waveguides as IR Sensors via a Magnesiothermic Reduction Process
C.  Conformal Coating and Replication
Example: Porous Wall, Nanocrystalline TiO2 Nanotube Arrays for Solar Cells and Other Electrode Applications

II. Bio-enabled, Chemically-Tailored, Hierarchically-Structured Materials

A.  Diatom-Enabled 3-D Materials
Example: #1. Si, C, TiO2, and Other Replicas via Gas/Solid Reactions for Battery and Fuel Cell Electrodes, Enzyme Supports, Sensors
Example: #2. Au Replicas via Conformal Electroless Deposition for Extraordinary Optical Transmission
B.  Butterfly-Enabled 3-D Materials
Example: Photoluminescent Eu-doped BaTiO3 Replicas via Layer-by-Layer Surface Sol-Gel Coating and Hydrothermal Reaction for Anti-Counterfeiting and Tracking
C.  Pollen-Enabled 3-D Materials
Example: Magnetic Fe3O4 Replicas via Layer-by-Layer Surface Sol-Gel Coating for Tailored Multimodal Adhesion
D.  Protein-Enabled Hybrid Coatings
Example: Enzyme/Oxide Coatings via Layer-by-Layer Protamine-based Deposition for Biocatalysis



I. Shape-Preserving Chemical Transformation: “Materials Alchemy”
Materials with complex three-dimensional (3-D) morphologies, and with tailorable micro-to-nanoscale structures and chemistries, are needed to achieve desired combinations of properties for enhanced performance in a host of energy, environmental, transportation, defense, and medical applications. However, materials that can be easily formed into a particular desired morphology often do not possess the required chemistry and finer scale structure needed for desired properties. This problem may be addressed by separating the shape-forming process from the chemical-tailoring process; that is, a solid structure with the desired shape (a “preform”) may first be generated with a readily-formed material and then a second, shape-preserving reaction process may be used to convert this preform into a new material with a desired chemistry and
micro/nanostructure. Several pioneering shape-preserving chemical transformation processes (see below) have been developed and patented by the Sandhage group to convert synthetic preforms (e.g., generated by 3-D printing or CNC machining) and biogenic preforms (e.g., diatom microshells, butterfly scales, pollen grains) into complex-shaped, chemically-tailored, micro/nanostructured materials with attractive properties. Such shape-preserving chemical transformation of one material into another may be considered to be a modern type of materials “alchemy.” Several examples are presented below of the use of such processes to generate macroscale/microstructured and microscale/nanostructured materials with well-controlled chemistries and morphologies for particular applications.

A. Shape-Preserving Liquid/Solid Displacement Reactions: High-Melting, Robust ZrC/W Rocket Nozzles via the “Displacive Compensation of Porosity” Process

One of the most severe environments encountered by materials exists in the throat region of a solid-fueled rocket nozzle. Solid, aluminum-bearing fuels generate combustion products (molten Al2O3 droplets and gas) that impact the nozzles at supersonic speeds and at temperatures >2500oC. Under these extreme conditions, rocket nozzle materials need to exhibit minimal vaporization, erosion, and creep. Nozzle materials must also be highly resistant to thermal shock, given the rapid rise in temperature upon ignition. Conventional materials used for such solid-fuel nozzles include tungsten, rhenium, and carbon. Tungsten and rhenium are quite heavy, and all three materials are not highly erosion resistant at elevated temperatures.

Zirconium carbide/tungsten (ZrC/W) composites are attractive alternative materials for solid-fuel rocket nozzles. Zirconium carbide is a stiff, hard, high-melting (up to 3445oC) compound that is much lighter (6.6 g/cm3) than tungsten (19.3 g/cm3). Tungsten is also quite high-melting (3422oC) but undergoes a brittle-to-ductile transformation at ≤360oC. Hence, an interconnected ZrC network endows ZrC/W composites with high-temperature stiffness and reduced weight relative to monolithic W, whereas the high-temperature ductility of W provides higher resistance to fracture at elevated temperatures relative to monolithic ZrC. ZrC and W are also chemically and thermally compatible. ZrC and W possess low vapor pressures and exhibit limited mutual solid solubility at elevated temperature. Furthermore, these solids do not react to form other more stable compounds. Remarkably, ZrC and W possess similar thermal expansion coefficients at room temperature and at 2700oC, and both materials possess relatively high values of thermal conductivity. As a result, ZrC/W composites are highly resistant to thermal shock (unlike most ceramic/metal composites).

A pressureless reactive melt infiltration process developed and patented by Sandhage, et al. has been used to fabricate ZrC/W (and other) cermets into complicated near net-shape/size bodies. With this “Displacive Compensation of Porosity” (DCP) process, porous WC bodies (“preforms”) are first produced in the desired final 3-D shape via conventional forming (such as by pressing, slip casting, or gel casting) or via rapid prototyping methods (such as 3-D printing or CNC green machining). Once the porous WC preform has been fabricated into the desired final shape, it is then immersed in a bath of Zr2Cu liquid at 1150oC which wets and spontaneously infiltrates into the porous WC preform. Upon heating to 1300oC, the following displacement reaction proceeds to completion:

0.5Zr2Cu(l) + WC(s) => ZrC(s) + W(s) + 0.5Cu(l)

Because ZrC and W possess a combined volume about twice that of WC, the reaction results in filling of the prior pores within the rigid body (reaction-induced densification without sintering), thereby forcing the residual Cu-rich liquid back out of the composite; that is, the increase in solid volume due to the displacement reaction compensates for the prior pore volume (hence, the phrase “Displacive Compensation of Porosity”). As shown in Figures 1 and 2, porous 3-D WC parts have been fully converted into non-porous ZrC/W-based composites that retain the starting preform 3-D shape with very small dimensional changes (fractional changes <0.008).


Because this reaction process is rate-limited by outward solid-state diffusion of C from local WC particles through the ZrC/W reaction products, the time required to complete this reaction does not depend on the size of the preform, so that the DCP process is scalable to much larger parts than shown in Figure 2.

The DCP process is a proven means of producing dense, near net-shape/size, ZrC/W composites (and other cermets) in a variety of complex and tailorable 3-D shapes (e.g., rocket nozzles, nozzle liners, grooved plates, crucibles, etc.). These and other DCP-derived cermets possess an unusual combination of properties for extreme (e.g., highly erosive, high temperature, high thermal shock, corrosive) environments. Indeed, DCP-derived ZrC/W rocket nozzle liners (Figure 3) were found to be resistant to the extreme thermal shock and erosion of a solid-fueled Pi-K rocket test conducted at Edwards Air Force Base (in collaboration with Dr. Wes Hoffman).

B. Shape-Preserving Gas/Solid Displacement Reactions: Highly-Porous Si Films on Dense, Micropatterned Si Waveguides as IR Sensors via a Magnesio-thermic Reduction Process

Owing to its attractive optical and electrical properties, large surface-to-volume ratio, and ease of surface modification, porous silicon (pSi) has been extensively studied in a variety of applications, such as light-emitting diodes, photodetectors, optical switches, lithium ion batteries, and label-free optical detection of numerous analytes (bacteria, enzymes, viruses, DNA, gases). Conventionally, pSi films are fabricated by anodization of single crystal silicon wafers, leading to films possessing two-dimensional (2-D), cylindrical mesopores with thicknesses controlled by the anodization kinetics of doped silicon in HF-bearing solutions. The use of applied currents with HF-bearing solutions makes integration with silicon-on-insulator (SOI) platforms difficult. Furthermore, such anodized pSi optical microcavities have exhibited modest quality factors.

The Sandhage group has developed and patented a magnesiothermic reaction process that yields pSi films with three-dimensionally-interconnected nanoporosity on SOI platforms that avoids the need for doped silicon, applied currents, or HF-bearing solutions. With this process, unpatterned SOI substrates are first oxidized to yield a SiO2 thin film of well-controlled thickness. The silica film is then allowed to undergo the following magnesiothermic displacement reaction:

SiO2(s) + 2Mg(g) => 2MgO(s) + Si(s)

The resulting product film is comprised of an intimate mixture of nanocrystalline MgO and Si phases that form as co-continuous networks. This reaction process has been thermodynamically designed to allow for reaction of the Mg(g) with only the SiO2 film (i.e., not with the underlying Si substrate), so that the thickness of the pSi film can beprecisely controlled via adjustment of the starting SiO2 film thickness (which is itself tailorable to within ∼1 nm by controlled thermal oxidation of silicon). Selective acid dissolution of the continuous MgO phase then yields a 3-D-interconnected network of nanosized pores and an interconnected network of nanocrystalline Si (Figure 4).


After selective MgO dissolution, the resulting pSi-clad Si specimens were patterned into pSi-clad optical resonators (Figure 5) in collaborative research with the Adibi group (School of Electrical and Computer Engineering) at Georgia Tech. The pSi-clad SOI racetrack microresonators consisted of a ∼120 nm thick pSi cladding on a ∼520 nm wide by ∼230 nm tall silicon waveguide (Figure 5b). This geometry was chosen to ensure single-mode operation under transverse electric (TE) polarization (electric field in the device plane) at 1550 nm, while maintaining a reasonably high Q-factor and wide free spectral range. The thin pSi cladding enables a higher loading of analyte molecules within the evanescent tail of the optical mode. Indeed, the large internal specific surface area (≥500 m2/g) associated with uniformly-distributed, nanoscale pores in the pSi film formed by this process provides for greater adsorption of small analytes for enhanced detection sensitivity, while the thin, uniform nature of the pSi films allows for high Q-factors and high spectral resolution.

The TE transmission spectra of such a pSi-clad racetrack resonator and a reference racetrack resonator lacking pSi are shown in Figure 6a and b, respectively. The full-


width-at-half-maximum (FWHM) of the resonance at 1550 nm for the pSi-clad and reference resonators were ∼70 pm and ∼65 pm, respectively, which corresponded to loaded Q-factors of 22,000 and 24,000, respectively. To quantitatively evaluate the enhanced analyte adsorption resulting from the increased surface area of the pSi cladding, (3-aminopropyl)triethoxysilane (APTES) monolayers were deposited on pSi- bearing and reference resonators. Ellipsometric analysis indicated that the deposited APTES thickness was ∼9.2 ± 1 Å. After APTES deposition, the redshift in resonance wavelength (Figures 6d and c) for the pSi-clad resonator (∼679.6 pm) was ∼6 times larger than for the reference resonator (∼112.9 pm). The APTES-induced redshift for the pSi-bearing resonator corresponded to a sensitivity of ∼0.8 pm/(pg/mm2). With the Q-factor of the pSi-clad microresonator being 22,000 and a reasonably assumed spectral resolution of ∼1 pm, the detection limit of the present pSi-clad sensor, in terms of deposited molecule thickness, was estimated to be ∼0.01 Å, which is an order of magnitude better than previously- reported for anodization-derived pSi optical sensors. As a further test of enhanced sensitivity with the pSi cladding, a layer of N-hydroxy-succinimidobiotin (NHS-Biotin) was applied via succinimide-crosslinking to the amine-terminated APTES monolayer on both devices. The thickness of the NHS-Biotin layer was determined to be ∼3.5 ± 1 Å by ellipsometry (using a refractive index of 1.46). The measured resonance wavelength redshift for the pSi resonator (∼183.9 pm) was again about 6 times greater than for the reference resonator (∼28.8 pm) (Figures 6d and c). Such integrated pSi-bearing SOI microresonator sensors may be applied for the sensitive, reliable, rapid, low-cost, lab-on-chip detection of a variety of potential analytes. This magnesiothermic reaction process and platform may also be applied to devices involving other light-matter interactions (such as nonlinear optics, switching, etc.) for various applications.

C. Conformal Coating and Replication: Porous Wall, Nanocrystalline TiO2 Nanotube Arrays for Solar Cells and Other Electrode Applications

High-aspect-ratio transition metal oxide nanotube arrays with a high density of well-aligned pore channels and high surface areas can be attractive structures for use in a number of chemical, electrical, electrochemical, optical, photochemical, and biochemical devices, such as high-throughput (photo)catalysts or adsorbants, aligned electrodes for solar cells or batteries, sensitive and rapid gas detectors, precise fluid flow control devices, or functionalized membranes for selective (bio)molecular separation.

The Sandhage group has developed an aqueous, protein-enabled, layer-by-layer (LbL) deposition process for generating aligned nanotube arrays comprised of nanocrystalline oxides with a high degree of interconnected porosity present within the tube walls. With this process, repeated alternating exposure of an aligned-nanochannel template to the protein and then to a water-soluble precursor salt is used to build up a conformal protein/oxide composite coating of a desired thickness. Upon subsequent pyrolysis of the protein, a coating comprised of a co-continuous network of pores and oxide nanoparticles is formed. Selective dissolution of the underlying template through the interconnected pore network of the coating then yields freestanding, high-aspect-ratio, porous-wall nanotube arrays. Unlike gas-phase atomic layer deposition, this protein-based process does not require the use of vapor precursors, controlled atmospheres, or vapor-generating equipment. Furthermore, this biomimetic mineralization process does not utilize moisture-sensitive precursors (e.g., the alkoxides used in sol-gel processing) and does not require hydroxyl-rich templates or multistep surface functionalization treatments (for enriching templates with hydroxyl groups) needed for the surface sol-gel-based deposition of continuous and conformal coatings.

Prior work by the Sandhage group (in collaboration with the Naik group at the Air Force Research Laboratory, Wright-Patterson Air Force Base) involving the use of bacteriophage display biopanning has indicated that 12-mer peptides enriched in basic residues (arginine, lysine, histidine) were particularly effective at binding to titania and at inducing the formation of relatively high yields of Ti-O-bearing precipitates at room temperature from an aqueous titania precursor-bearing (Ti(IV) bisammonium-lactato-dihydroxide, TiBALDH) solution. Protamine, a relatively inexpensive and readily-available arginine-rich protein harvested from a variety of fish (e.g., salmon, herring, trout, and tuna), has also been found by the Sandhage group to be capable of binding to silica and titania, and of inducing the formation of conformal Ti-O-bearing coatings from a TiBALDH-bearing solution. This prior work has led the Sandhage group to develop an aqueous protamine-based LbL coating process for generating high-aspect-ratio, aligned nanotube arrays composed of porous, yet interconnected titania nanoparticles.

A porous anodic alumina membrane was used as the template for such nanotube generation. The aligned pore channels running through this membrane are revealed in the top-down and cross-sectional images in Figures 7a and b, respectively. Such a membrane was exposed to 8 protamine/TiBALDH cycles to buildup a continuous and conformal protamine/TiO2 coating on the external and internal alumina surfaces. Secondary electron images of the coated template are shown in Figures 7c and d. The cross-section in Figure 7d reveals a continuous coating on the alumina template. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopic analyses of such coated surfaces revealed peaks for Ti and O (consistent with titania), N and C (consistent with protamine), but not for Al, which indicated that the protamine/Ti-O-bearing composite coating completely covered the template surface. The protamine/Ti-O-coated alumina membranes were then heated to 650°C in air for 3 h to allow for water removal, organic pyrolysis, and titania crystallization. Thermogravimetric analysis revealed a relatively large weight loss (∼44%) from about 200°C to 475°C, which indicated that appreciable protamine was entrained along with titania in the deposited coating. The appreciable interconnected porosity generated throughout the titania coating upon protamine pyrolysis at 650°C allowed for subsequent penetration of a sodium hydroxide solution for selective dissolution of the underlying alumina template. The structural interconnectivity of the titania nanoparticle network in the fired coating resulted in freestanding, high-aspectratio titania nanotube arrays (9.9 μm length:34 nm wall thickness = 291:1) upon removal of the alumina template. The titania nanotube arrays were then transferred to transparent, fluorine-doped tin oxide (FTO) coated glass substrates. Prior to attachment of a given nanotube array to such a substrate, the FTO layer was coated with a thin layer of titania nanoparticle-bearing paste. After mating the nanotube array to the coated FTO/glass substrate, the assembly was heated in air to 500°C for 1 h to pyrolyze the organic material in the paste and to sinter-bond the titania nanotube array to the titania nanoparticle-coated FTO/glass substrate. Side-view secondary electron images of a titania nanotube array attached to a FTO/glass substrate are shown in Figures 8. The higher magnification image in Figure 8b indicates that the freestanding titania tubes were comprised of a porous, yet interconnected network of nanoparticles with diameters of ∼15–20 nm. 


X-ray diffraction analysis of the tubes (Figure 9a) yielded peaks for anatase titania. Scherrer analysis of the anatase diffraction peaks yielded an average crystallite size of 15 nm, which indicated that the titania crystals and titania particles seen in Figure 8b were of comparable size. Transmission electron microscope images (Figures 9b and c) indicated that the freestanding titania nanotubes were composed of a porous network of nanoparticles with sizes on the order of 10–20 nm (consistent with Scherrer analysis). High resolution transmission electron microscopy (Figure 9d) and selected area electron diffraction analysis (Figure 9e) yielded lattice fringes and ring patterns, respectively, consistent with nanocrystalline anatase titania.


Experiments were then conducted to evaluate the extent of adsorption of a ruthenium-based dye onto the porous nanotube arrays. A N719 dye (cis di(thiocyanato)-N-N’-bis(2,2’-bipyridyl-4-carboxylic acid-4’-tetrabutylammonium carboxylate) ruthenium (II)) was allowed to adsorb onto the porous titania nanotubes for a period of 24 h. The dye was then desorbed from the nanotubes by immersing the assembly in a 100 mM NaOH solution. The concentration of the dye in this solution was evaluated via measurement of the absorbance of the solution at 513 nm and comparison to calibration solutions of known N719 content. The average N719 dye loading was found to be 1.63 x 10-4 mol/g (normalized to the weight of titania in the nanotube assembly), which was more than twice the amount of such N719 ruthenium dye adsorbed onto dense wall titania nanotube arrays (7.42 x 10-5 mol/g) prepared via a sol-gel infiltration process.

This work demonstrates that protamine’s ability to bind to alumina and titania, as well as its ability to induce the room temperature precipitation of a Ti-O-bearing coating from an aqueous precursor solution, enables the layer-by-layer syntheses of aligned high-aspect-ratio titania nanotube arrays composed of co-continuous networks of pores and titania nanoparticles. These nanotube arrays exhibit: i) enhanced loading of functional molecules (resulting from the interconnected pores in the freestanding nanotube walls), ii) highly-aligned pore channels (resulting from the lateral connectivity of the conformal titania coating deposited at the top and bottom faces of the aligned pore template), and iii) anisotropic electrical conductivity (enabled by the interconnected titania nanoparticle These inherent characteristics of protein-enabled nanotube arrays make them attractive for use as electrodes (solar cells, batteries), sensors, adsorbants, (photo)catalysts, and other electrochemical, photochemical, or biochemical devices.

II. Bio-enabled, Chemically-Tailored, Hierarchically-Structured Materials

A second major research thrust of the Sandhage group is the bio-enabled syntheses of materials (via the use of biogenic templates and/or biomolecules) with unprecedented combinations of complex chemistry and complex hierarchical (nano-to-macroscale) structure. Nature provides impressive examples of organisms capable of forming organic and inorganic structures with intricate and controlled three-dimensional (3-D) hierarchical (nanoscale-to-macroscale) morphologies. For example, certain butterflies and beetles generate chitinous scales with intricate 3-D structures for exquisite control of color (so-called “structural color”). Among the most versatile of organisms for generating complex inorganic structures are diatoms, a type of aquatic single-celled algae. Each diatom species forms a SiO2-bearing microshell (frustule) with a particular 3-D shape and with specific patterns of fine features (pores, ridges, channels, protuberances, etc.). Owing to the species-specific nature of diatom SiO2 structure formation, a rich variety of 3-D microshell morphologies can be found among the estimated 104-105 extant diatom species. The sustained reproduction (repeated doubling) of a given species of diatom can yield enormous numbers of daughter diatoms with similarly-shaped frustules (e.g., 80 reproduction cycles corresponds to 280 ≈ 1.2 × 1024 = twice Avogadro’s number of frustule copies). Such massively-parallel, direct, and precise (genetically-controlled) self-assembly of structures with a wide selection of 3-D nano-to-microscale morphologies under ambient conditions has no analogue among synthetic self-assembly processes. However, the SiO2-based chemistry of diatom microshells, and the chitin-based chemistry of butterfly and beetle scales, severely limit the properties and range of applications for such biogenic structures.

The Sandhage group has pioneered and patented several approaches for altering the chemistries, while retaining the 3-D hierarchical morphologies, of these biologically-derived structures. By coupling the impressive structure-formation capabilities (massively-parallel, genetically-precise, 3-D self-assembly) of biological organisms with the wide range of non-naturally-occurring synthetic chemistries (via the Biological Assembly and Shape-preserving Inorganic Conversion or BASIC paradigm), a rich variety of functional, bio-enabled hierarchically-structured materials may be generated, as illustrated in the following examples.

A. Diatom-Enabled 3-D Materials: Si, C, TiO2, and Other Replicas via Gas/Solid Reactions for Battery and Fuel Cell Electrodes, Enzyme Supports, and Sensors

While diatoms generate a wide variety of selectable, species-specific hierarchical structures that can be attractive for particular uses in energy, environmental, and sensing applications, the SiO2-based chemistry of such structures does not provide the desired electrical, catalytic, and adsorptive properties desired for such applications. To overcome this limitation, the Sandhage group has developed and utilized a variety of shape-preserving reactions (gas/solid, liquid/solid, solid/solid reactions) to convert diatom silica (and synthetic silica) structures into replicas comprised of other functional materials, including Si, C, SiC, MgO, TiO2, ZrO2, BaTiO3, Eu-doped BaTiO3, and Mn-doped Zn2SiO4. For example, the following magnesiothermic reaction has been used to completely convert such SiO2 structures into MgO/Si replicas:

SiO2(s) + 2Mg(g) => 2MgO(s) + Si(s)

Selective acid dissolution of the MgO product then yielded a highly-porous, nanocrystalline Si replica (Figure 10a) of the starting diatom SiO2 microshell. The specific surface area of the Si replica was 540 m2/g (i.e., more than 300 times greater than for the starting SiO2 microshell). The porous Si replica was then converted into a porous C replica (Figure 10b) of even higher surface area (1370 m2/g) via the following series of reactions:

Si(s) + CH4(g) => SiC(s) + 2H2(g)

SiC(s) + 2Cl2(g) => C(s) + SiCl4(g)

TiO2 frustule replicas (Figure 10c) have been synthesized via the following sequential gas/solid reactions:

SiO2(s) + 2TiF4(g) => 2TiOF2(s) + SiF4(g)

TiOF2(s) + H2O(g) => TiO2(s) + 2HF(g)


The use of such shape-preserving reactions to generate Si, SiC, C, TiO2, and other replicas of such biogenic (as well as synthetic) structures has been pioneered and patented by the Sandhage group.

The ability to generate such open, porous, 3-D hierarchical structures comprised of nanocrystalline Si, C, TiO2, and other functional materials with a wide variety of selectable, well-controlled morphologies is quite unique and highly attractive for electrodes (e.g., for lithium ion batteries or fuel cells), catalysts/catalyst supports, sensors, filtration media, and other devices. For example, Pt was deposited onto/into the C frustule replicas with the use of Pt(CO)2Cl2 vapor, and the electrocatalytic behavior of the resulting nanocrystalline Pt/C frustule replicas (Figure 11a, b) for the oxygen reduction reaction was evaluated in an oxygen-saturated 0.5 M H2SO4 solution using a rotating disk electrode (via collaboration with Liu, School of Materials Science & Engineering, Georgia Tech). The performance of the Pt-bearing C frustule replicas (CF) was compared with that of Pt-bearing C derived from SiC powder (CS) and Pt-bearing Vulcan XC-72R carbon (CV) black (note: the microparticle content deposited onto the working electrode was adjusted to achieve a similar amount of total platinum loading for each type of carbon microparticle). As can be seen in Figure 11c, the steady-state current for the Pt-bearing C frustule electrode was significantly higher than for the Pt/CS and Pt/CV electrodes. Such enhanced electrocatalytic activity of the Pt-bearing C frustule replicas for the oxygen reduction reaction was consistent with the presence of a higher population of very fine (<2 nm diameter) Pt nanoparticles (Figure 11b) and a reduced oxygen diffusion distance (due to the hollow nature and thin wall inherited from the starting diatom frustule, Figure 11a) for these microparticles than for the Pt/CS and Pt/CV microparticles. That is, synergistic use of the bio-enabled hierarchical frustule structure with the new synthetic Pt/C chemistry and nanostructure yielded enhanced electrocatalytic performance.

Such control over 3-D morphology and chemistry/nanostructure allows for the tailoring of fluid (gas or liquid) transport through, and nanoparticle dispersions within, highly porous carbon structures for enhanced catalysis, filtration, intercalation, or adsorption for numerous applications, such as in energy storage and harvesting, sensing, water purification, carbon sequestration, and (bio)chemical separation.

B. Diatom-Enabled 3-D Materials: Au Replicas via Conformal Electroless Deposition for Extraordinary Optical Transmission

Nanocrystalline plasmonic materials, such as gold or silver, can exhibit remarkable optical and chemical properties if fabricated in an appropriate structure. For example, gold or silver films possessing patterned arrays of pore channels can exhibit appreciable light transmission even if the pore channel diameters are appreciably smaller than the wavelength of the transmitted light. Such surface plasmon-enabled “extraordinary optical transmission” is strongly affected by the pore channel pattern and spacing. To evaluate the utility of patterned pore structures generated by diatoms for such light transmission, the Sandhage group (in collaboration with the Perry group, School of Chemistry & Biochemistry at Georgia Tech) has examined the conversion of diatom SiO2 frustules into replicas comprised of nanocrystalline Au and other metals. The frustules of the Coscinodiscus asteromphalus diatom (cultured in the Sandhage laboratory) were selected, owing to the quasi-periodic pore pattern present on such frustules (Figure 12). To allow for electroless gold deposition, the surfaces of the silica


frustules were first functionalized with a high density of catalyst particles. A thin, conformal, and continuous layer of nanocrystalline gold was then deposited onto the frustules during immersion in an electroless gold plating solution. The underlying silica template was then removed by selective dissolution through occasional pinholes in the metal coating. Secondary electron images of the resulting high-fidelity gold replica of the C. asteromphalus frustule are shown in Figure 13. An


optical image of the gold frustule replica, and the transmission of infrared light through the replica, are shown in Figure 14. A range of IR wavelengths, centered about 4.3 um (peak transmission of 13%) could be transmitted through this frustule, even though the average pore channel diameter was well below 4 um (on the order of 1 um). Such multiwavelength extraordinary IR transmission resulted from the synergistic use of a bio-enabled structure and the shape-preserving conversion of such a structure into a nanocrystalline gold replica. Bio-enabled structures of this type can be attractive for optical filtering, sensing, catalysis, and other applications.


C. Butterfly-Enabled 3-D Materials: Photoluminescent Eu-doped BaTiO3 Replicas via Layer-by-Layer Surface-Sol-Gel Coating and Hydrothermal Reaction for Anti-Counterfeiting and Tracking

Certain butterflies, moths, and beetles exhibit impressive control of color through the use of hierarchically-patterned 3-D chitinous structures. To expand the range of optical properties exhibited by such structures, the Sandhage group has developed strategies for converting such assemblies into functional inorganic replicas that retain the intricate biogenic morphologies. For example, such chemical conversion has been applied to the scales within the blue-green stripes on the dorsal forewings and hindwings of the Papilio blumei butterfly (Figure 15). Bright field optical images of these stripes (Figure 15a inset) reveal overlapping tapered scales with typical lengths of about 200 um and maximum widths of about 100 um. Each individual scale (Figure 15b) contained elevated ridges running parallel to the scale length, with shallow concave depressions lying between the ridges. The hydroxyl-rich nature of the chitin that comprises such scales enabled the highly-conformal, layer-by-layer coating of such scales with titania via the surface sol-gel process, using a computer-automated deposition system developed by the Sandhage group. After 50 deposition cycles, the coated scales were heated in air to 450oC for 4 h to allow for pyrolysis of the chitin template and crystallization of the TiO2. The resulting TiO2 replicas were then converted into Eudoped BaTiO3 replicas via microwave hydrothermal reaction with a solution of europium and barium acetates at 140oC. As shown in Figures 15c and d, the converted (allinorganic) scales retained the raised ridges and shallow concave depressions of the native P. blumei scales along with the overall tapered scale shape.

Confocal fluorescence microscopy was used to evaluate the patterned photoluminescence of the Eu-doped BaTiO3 P. blumei scale replicas. A fluorescence image (488 nm excitation with a long-pass 585 nm filter), a transmission optical image (543 nm light), and a composite (fluorescence + transmission) image of a Eu-doped BaTiO3 scale replica are shown in Figure 16. The fluorescence image of the Eu-doped BaTiO3-converted scale clearly revealed the tapered scale shape and parallel microscale ridge pattern of the P. blumei scales. The similarities between the

fluorescence and transmission optical images were consistent with a relatively uniform distribution of Eu throughout the replica. The utility of such 3-D Eu-doped BaTiO3 structures for unobtrusive labelling of white paper was then examined. A bright field optical image, and an associated fluorescence image, of the same scales on white filter paper are shown in Figure 17. The inset images shown in these figures were obtained with the scales placed on a glass slide. A 3-D topographical color map of Eu-doped BaTiO3 scale replicas on the filter paper, generated from a series of stacked confocal dark field images, is also shown in Figure 17c. The topographical map revealed that the inorganic scale replicas were able to bend so as to conform well to the surface of the filter paper. Such conformality, along with white color of both the scales and the filter paper, made detection of the scale replicas on the filter paper difficult in visible light, as seen in the bright field image of Figure 17a. However, the presence of such scales was readily detected in the fluorescence image of Figure 17b.

This 3-D morphology-preserving chemical conversion process provides a means of generating patterned photoluminescent inorganic structures with an enormous variety of morphologies derived from (bio)organic templates and tailorable color(s) (via doping of BaTiO3 with one or more lanthanides) for unobtrusive, yet highly-distinct labelling of documents or goods for tracking or anticounterfeiting purposes.

C. Pollen-Enabled 3-D Materials: Magnetic Fe3O4 Replicas via Layer-by-Layer Surface Sol-Gel Coating for Tailored Multimodal Adhesion

Adhesion by or on microparticles plays a critical role in a wide range of developing and mature technologies, including drug delivery, catalysis, water/chemical purification, sensing, antifouling coatings and membranes, semiconductor device processing, composite processing, paints, printing, and xerography. Microparticles with rough surfaces and nonspherical shapes are desired for a number of such technologies. However, the scalable fabrication of microparticles with well-controlled surface asperities in a variety of three-dimensional (3D) morphologies and with tailorable chemistries to allow for tunable adhesion remains a difficult synthetic challenge. A rich sustainable source of 3-D microparticles, with complex morphologies affecting dispersion and adhesion in nature, is pollen. Pollen particles come in a wide variety of 3-D shapes and species-specific surface topographies and are produced in large and increasing quantities worldwide by plants. Because the exine (outer layer) of pollen grains is composed of sporopollenin (a complex polymer consisting of carboxylic acids and aromatic moieties cross-linked with aliphatic chains), the pollen surfaces are enriched with hydroxyl groups that provide an abundance of reaction sites for the chemisorption of alkoxide precursors during a surface sol-gel-coating process.

A computer-automated, layer-by-layer, surface sol-gel process has been developed by the Sandhage group to convert the sporopollenin-based exine of pollen grains into magnetic Fe3O4 replicas. Secondary electron images of a starting cleaned sunflower pollen grain are shown in Figure 18a. The sunflower pollen grains were roughly spherical in shape and possessed echini (spines) of relatively high aspect ratio (height/width-at-mid-height ratio of ∼5:1). A secondary electron image of a sunflower pollen particle after exposure to 30 surface sol-gel Fe-O deposition cycles is shown in Figure 18b. The highly conformal nature of the surface sol-gel Fe-O-bearing coating was evident from the preservation of the echini and the fine pores at the base of the echini (as indicated by the arrows in Figure 18b). The coated pollen particles were then heated in air at 600°C for 4 h to allow for pyrolysis of the pollen template and crystallization of the oxide coating. Complete pyrolysis of the sporopollenin during this treatment was confirmed by thermogravimetric analysis. Although smaller in diameter than the starting as-coated pollen particles, these hematite particles retained the 3-D shapes and surface features of the starting pollen grains (Figure 18c). Indeed, the high-fidelity nature of such replication was revealed by images of the same particle before (Figure 18b) and after (Figure 18c) the 600°C/4 h treatment. (Note that the arrows in Figures 18b and c reveal the same spine and fine pore present before and after this thermal treatment.) Conversion of these hematite (Fe2O3) replicas into magnetite (Fe3O4) was conducted via use of a thermal treatment with a Rhines pack. An excess powder mixture of iron and magnetite was sealed along with hematite pollen replicas

within a mild steel ampule. The ampule was then heated to 550°C for 2 h. The oxygen partial pressure established within the ampule by the Fe/Fe3O4 equilibrium at 550°C allowed for complete conversion of the replica particles into phase-pure nanocrystalline magnetite, as confirmed by X-ray diffraction analysis. Scherrer analyses yielded an average magnetite crystallite size of 34 nm. Secondary electron images (Figure 18d) indicated that the 3-D morphology and sharp echini of the sunflower pollen were retained by the magnetite replicas. (Note that the arrows in Figures 18c and d show the same spine and fine pore before and after this Rhines pack thermal treatment.)

To allow for quantitative evaluation of the adhesion of the magnetite pollen replicas to various substrate surfaces, single replica particles were attached to AFM cantilevers (Figure 19a). Contact mode AFM measurements were then used (in collaboration with the Meredith group in the School of Chemical & Biomolecular Engineering at Georgia Tech) to evaluate the short-range (van der Waals-based) and long range (magnetic) adhesion of such particles to a variety of substrates, including Si and an axially-poled Nd-Fe-B alloy coated with a thin foil of Ni. As revealed in Figure 19b, a similar short-range van der Waals adhesion force of ∼40 nN was observed for the Fe3O4 sunflower pollen particle in contact with either the Si substrate or the Ni-coated Nd-alloy magnet substrate. However, an appreciable additional magnetic attractive force of ∼40 nN was detected between the ferrimagnetic Fe3O4 sunflower pollen replica and the disk-shaped Ni-coated Nd-alloy substrate at locations near the outer edge of this substrate, which is where the magnetic field intensity associated with this magnetized Ni-Nd substrate was the highest. The magnetic interaction between the Fe3O4 sunflower pollen replicas and the magnetized edge of the Ni-coated Nd-alloy substrate persisted out to a separation distance of ∼1 mm.

This work demonstrates that a highly-conformal, layer-by-layer, surface sol-gel-coating process can be used along with controlled modest-temperature thermal treatments to convert pollen particles into nanocrystalline ferrimagnetic (Fe3O4 ) replicas exhibiting multimodal adhesion via short-range van der Waals-based attraction and short-to-longrange (up to ∼1 mm) magnetic attraction. The wide variety of 3-D particle shapes and surface topographies available from pollen generated by different plants and the ability of this coating process to produce high-fidelity nanocrystalline replicas with controlled amounts of magnetic oxide (by adjusting the number of deposition cycles) allows for the syntheses of pollen-derived microparticles with highly tailorable multimodal adhesion.

D. Protein-Enabled Hybrid Coatings: Enzyme/Oxide Coatings via Layer-by-Layer Protamine-Based Deposition for Biocatalysis

The protamine-enabled, layer-by-layer deposition process discussed above has also been utilized to generate functional enzyme/oxide coatings. In collaboration with the Kröger group (now at B CUBE Center for Molecular Bioengineering, Dept. Chemistry & Food Chemistry, Technical University of Dresden), a protamine-enabled process has been developed for the controlled immobilization of the model enzyme, glucose oxidase (GOx), on Stöber silica substrates. Protamine (PA) molecules were covalently linked toGOx using the amine-reactive homobifunctional crosslinking molecule, bis(sulfosuccinimidyl) suberate. At pH 7, the resulting hybrid molecule, GOx-PA, exhibited a positive zeta potential (ζ = + 5.1 ± 1.0 mV) unlike the GOx molecule alone (ζ = –2.9 ± 1.6 mV). The layer-by-layer deposition process was then conducted with the use of positively-charged PA or GOx-PA molecules as the binding and mineralizing agents for a given deposition cycle. Coatings with silica (using a freshly-prepared silicic acid precursor from acid hydrolysis of TMOS) or titania (using a TiBALDH precursor) were examined. The influence of the position of the hybrid GOx-PA molecule within 5 layers of deposited coating on the activity of the enzyme (relative to the free GOx-PA molecule in solution) is shown in Figure 20. The activities of the different enzyme-bearing samples were dependent on both the particular layer location in which the enzyme was immobilized and the oxide composition of the coating. The activity of the enzyme increased as the enzyme was placed in layers located closer to the outer surface and was modestly higher in Si-O-bearing coatings as compared to Ti-O-bearing coatings. Indeed, GOx-PA immobilized in the fourth of five Si-O-bearing layers (specimen Si4 in Figure 20) exhibited essentially the same activity as the enzyme in solution, although a lower activity level resulted when the enzyme was immobilized in Ti-O-bearing coatings (specimen Ti4). The higher apparent enzymatic activity of the Si-O-bearing coatings, for the same layer position within the coating, was attributed to an enhanced rate of glucose diffusion through the Si-O-bearing coatings, due to the higher meso- and macroporosity values and reduced thickness, of Si-O-bearing coatings relative to the Ti- O-bearing coatings.

To investigate the effect of GOx-PA immobilization within a nanoscale mineral-bearing coating on the thermal stability of the enzyme, Si4 and Ti4 coated particles (i.e., GOx- PA immobilized in the fourth of five layers of Si-O- or Ti-O-coated silica spheres) were incubated at 65°C. Over a period of 48 h, aliquots were periodically removed and assayed for GOx activity. A rapid decrease in enzymatic activity for GOx-PA in solution was observed (Figure 21a), with a complete loss of activity after 90 min, which wasconsistent with previous results observed for the thermal denaturation of GOx in solution. In contrast, GOx-PA immobilized in Si-O and Ti-O retained 41.4 ± 7.5% and 21.9 ± 1.7% activity, respectively, after 90 min. Even after 3 h of incubation at 65°C, immobilized GOx-PA still exhibited 27.6 ± 4.0% (Si4) and 16.4 ± 2.8% (Ti4) of the original activity (Figure 21a). These data demonstrated that GOx-PA molecules immobilized inside Si-O and Ti-O nanoscale coatings were substantially stabilized against thermal denaturation. Inside the oxide films, protein unfolding (with an associated increase in protein volume) may be inhibited, thus stabilizing the native conformation and activity of the enzyme. To test whether this mechanism played a role in thermal stabilization of GOx-PA molecules immobilized within Ti-O-bearing and Si-Obearing coatings, protease accessibility experiments were performed. GOx-PA-bearing Ti4 and Si4 particles and free GOx-PA were exposed for 24 h to pronase (a highlyactive unspecific protease mixture). While >75% of free GOx-PA in solution was degraded, >81% of the immobilized GOx-PA molecules remained active in the Ti4 and Si4 samples (Figure 21b). This indicated that GOx-PA molecules were largely inaccessible within the Si-O and Ti-O nanoscale coatings, consistent with the enzyme being contained with nanoscale cavities.

This work demonstrates that a protein-enabled layer-by-layer coating process, involving the use of a properly-modified and properly-distributed functional enzyme within a nanoscale bio-organic/inorganic composite coating, can allow for full retention of enzymatic activity while providing enhanced stability against thermal and biochemical (protease) degradation. It is envisioned that this general strategy may be utilized togenerate functional and robust biomolecule-bearing nanoscale composite coatings for a variety of highly-demanding (bio)technological applications.


  1. B. Cocilovo, O. Herrera, S. Mehravar, Y. Fang, K. H. Sandhage, K. Kieu, R. A. Norwood, “Surface-Enhanced Two-Photon Excitation Fluorescence of Various Fluorophores Evaluated Using a Multiphoton Microscope,” J. Lightwave Technol., accepted, in press.
  2. I. J. Gomez, W. B. Goodwin, D. Sabo, Z. J. Zhang, K. H. Sandhage*, J. C. Meredith*, “Three-Dimensional Magnetite Replicas of Pollen Particles with Tailorable and Predictable Multimodal Adhesion,” J. Mater. Chem. C, 3 (3) 632-643 (2015).
  3. M. Lai, C. D. Hermann, R. Olivares-Navarrete, A. Cheng, R. A. Gittens, M. Walker, Y. Cai, K. Cai, K. H. Sandhage, Z. Schwartz, B. D. Boyan, “Role of a2b1 Integrins in Mediating Cell Shape on Microtextured Titanium Surfaces,” J. Biomed. Mater. Res. A, 103A (2) 564-573 (2015).
  4. K. Kieu, C. Li, Y. Fang, G. Cohoon, O. D. Herrera, M. Hildebrand, K. H. Sandhage, R. A. Norwood, “Structure-based Optical Filtering by the Silica Microshell of the Centric Marine Diatom Coscinodiscus wailesii,” Optics Express, 22 (13) 15992-15999 (2014).
  5. M. B. Barta, J. H. Nadler, Z. Kang, B. K. Wagner, R. Rosson, Y. Cai, K. H. Sandhage, B. Kahn, “Composition Optimization of Scintillating Rare-Earth Nanocrystals in Oxide Glass-Ceramics for Radiation Spectroscopy,” Appl. Optics, 53 (16) D21-D28 (2014).
  6. R. A. Gittens, R. Olivares-Navarrete, S. L. Hyzy, K. H. Sandhage, Z. Schwartz, B. D. Boyan, “Osteoblast Growth on Micro/Nanorough Titanium-Aluminum-Vanadium Alloy Surfaces Triggers Alternate Integrin Expression Profile,” Connective Tissue Res., 55 (S1) 164-168 (2014).
  7. V. Singh, T. L. Bougher, A. Weathers, Y. Cai, K. Bi, M. T. Pettes, S. A. McMenamin, W. Lu, D. P. Resler, T. R. Gattuso, D. H. Altman, K. H. Sandhage, L. Shi, A. Henry, B. A. Cola, “High Thermal Conductivity of a Chain-Oriented Amorphous Polythiophene,” Nature Nanotechnol., 9 (5) 384-390 (2014).
  8. Z. Xia, S. C. Davis, Ali A. Eftekhar, A. S. Gordin, Murtaza Askari, Qing Li, Farshid Ghasemi, K. H. Sandhage*, A. Adibi*, “High-Sensitivity Silicon-on-Insulator Optical Microresonator Sensors Clad with Thin Magnesiothermically-Formed Porous Silicon,” Adv. Optical Mater., 2 (3) 235-239 (2014).
  9. W. B. Goodwin, I. J. Gomez, Y. Fang, J. C. Meredith, K. H. Sandhage, “Conversion of Pollen Particles into Three-Dimensional Ceramic Replicas Tailored for Multimodal Adhesion,” Chem. Mater., 25 (22) 4529-4536 (2013).
  10. S. C. Davis, V. C. Sheppard, G. Begum, Y. Cai, Y. Fang, J. D. Berrigan, N. Kröger, K. H. Sandhage, “Rapid Flow-through Biocatalysis with High Surface Area, Enzyme-loaded Carbon and Gold-bearing Diatom Frustule Replicas,” Adv. Funct. Mater., 23 [36] 4611-4620 (2013).
  11. B. S. Cook, Y. Fang, S. Kim, T. Le, W. B. Goodwin, K. H. Sandhage, M. M. Tentzeris, “Inkjet Catalyst Printing and Electroless Copper Deposition for Low-Cost Patterned Microwave Passive Devices on Paper,” Electron. Mater. Lett., 9 [5] 669-676 (2013).
  12. M. B. Dickerson, W. Lyon, W. E. Gruner, P. A. Mirau, M. L. Jespersen, Y. Fang, K. H. Sandhage, R. R. Naik, “Unlocking the Latent Antimicrobial Potential of Biomimetically Synthesized Inorganic Materials,” Adv. Funct. Mater., 23 [34] 4236-4245 (2013).
  13. A. Xing, J. Zhang, K. Chen, Z. Bao, Y. Mei, A. S. Gordin, K. H. Sandhage, “A Magnesiothermic Reaction Process for the Scalable Production of Mesoporous Silicon for Rechargeable Lithium Batteries,” Chem. Commun., 49 (60) 6743-6745 (2013).
  14. R. A. Gittens, R. Olivares-Navarrete, A. Cheng, D. M. Anderson, T. McLachlan, I. Stephan, J. Geis-Gerstorfer, K. H. Sandhage, A. G. Fedorov, F. Rupp, B. D. Boyan, R. Tannenbaum, Z. Schwartz, “The Roles of Titanium Surface Micro/Nanotopography and Wettability on the Differential Response of Human Osteoblast Lineage Cells,” Acta Biomater., 9 (35) 6268-6277 (2013).
  15. Y. Kim, M. Kathaperumal, O. Smith, M.-J. Pan, Y. Cai, K. H. Sandhage, J. W. Perry, “High Energy Density Sol-Gel Thin Film based on Neat 2-Cyanoethyltrimethoxysilane,” ACS Appl. Mater. Interf., 5 (5) 1544-1547 (2013).
  16. J. D. Berrigan, T. McLachlan, J. R. Deneault, Y. Cai, T.-S. Kang, M. F. Durstock, K. H. Sandhage, “Conversion of Porous Anodic Al2O3 into Freestanding, Uniformly-Aligned Multi-wall TiO2 Nanotube Arrays for Electrode Applications,” J. Mater. Chem. A, 1 (1) 128-134 (2013).
  17. K. Chen, Z. Bao, J. Shen, G. Wu, B. Zhou, K. H. Sandhage, “Freestanding Monolithic Silicon Aerogels,” J. Mater. Chem., 22 [32] 16196-16200 (2012).
  18. D. W. Lipke, Y. Zhang, Y. Cai, K. H. Sandhage, “Intragranular Tungsten/Zirconium Carbide Nanocomposites via a Selective Liquid/Solid Displacement Reaction,” J. Am. Ceram. Soc., 95 [9] 2769-2772 (2012).
  19. J. P. Vernon, N. Hobbs, A. Lethbridge, P. Vukusic, D. D. Deheyn, K. H. Sandhage, “3-D Photoluminescent Lanthanide-doped Barium Titanate Structures Synthesized by Coating and Shape-preserving Reaction of Complex-shaped Bioorganic Templates,” J. Mater. Chem., 22 (21) 10435-10437 (2012). (Inside Front Cover)
  20. R. A. Gittens, R. Olivares-Navarrete, T. McLachlan, Y. Cai, S. L. Hyzy, J. M. Schneider, Z. Schwartz, K. H. Sandhage, B. D. Boyan, “Differential Responses of Osteoblast Lineage Cells to Nanotopographically-Modified, Microroughened Titanium-Aluminum-Vanadium Alloy Surfaces,” Biomater., 33 (35) 8986-8994 (2012).
  21. Y. Fang, V. W. Chen, Y. Cai, J. D. Berrigan, S. R. Marder, J. W. Perry, K. H. Sandhage, “Biologically-enabled Syntheses of Freestanding Metallic Structures Possessing Subwavelength Pore Arrays for Extraordinary (Plasmon-Mediated) Infrared Transmission,” Adv. Funct. Mater., 22 [12] 2550-2559 (2012). (Back Cover)
  22. H. Cheun, C. Fuentes-Hernandez, J. Shim, Y. Fang, Y. Cai, H. Li, A. Sigdel, J. Meyer, J. Maibach, A. Dindar, Y. Zhou, J. Berry, J.-L. Bredas, A. Kahn, K. H. Sandhage, B. Kippelen, “Oriented Growth of Al2O3:ZnO Nanolaminates for Use as Electron-Selective Electrodes in Inverted Polymer Solar Cells,” Adv. Funct. Mater., 22 [7] 1531-1538 (2012).
  23. Y. Fang, J. D. Berrigan, Y. Cai, S. R. Marder, K. H. Sandhage, “Syntheses of Nanostructured Cu- and Ni-based Micro-assemblies with Selectable 3-D Hierarchical Biogenic Morphologies,” J. Mater. Chem., 22 (4) 1305-1312 (2012). (Highlighted in Editors’ Choice section of the Jan. 20, 2012 edition of Science)
  24. D. K. Hwang, C. Fuentes-Hernandez, J. D. Berrigan, Y. Fang, J. Kim, W. J. Potscavage, Jr., H. Cheun, K. H. Sandhage, B. Kippelen, “Solvent and Polymer Matrix Effects on TIPS-Pentacene/Polymer Blend Organic Field-Effect Transistors,“ J. Mater. Chem., 22, 5531-5537 (2012).
  25. Z. Bao, M.-K. Song, S. Davis, Y. Cai, M. Liu, K. H. Sandhage, “Bio-enabled Syntheses of Hollow, High Surface Area, Micro/mesoporous Carbon Particles with Selectable 3-D Biogenic Morphologies for Tailored Catalysis, Filtration, or Adsorption,” Energy Environ. Sci., 4 (10) 3980-3984 (2011).
  26. N. R. Haase, S. Shian, K. H. Sandhage, N. Kröger, “Biocatalytic Nanoscale Coatings Through Biomimetic Layer-by-Layer Mineralization,” Adv. Funct. Mater., 21 (22) 4243-4251 (2011).
  27. H. Cheun, J. D. Berrigan, Y. Zhou, M. Fenoll, J. Shim, C. Fuentes-Hernandez, K. H. Sandhage, B. Kippelen, “Roles of Thermally-induced Vertical Phase Segregation and Crystallization on the Photovoltaic Performance of Bulk Heterojunction Inverted Polymer Solar Cells,” Energy Env. Sci., 4 (9) 3456-3460 (2011).
  28. S. Kim, Y. Bastani, H. Lu, W. King, S. R. Marder, K. H. Sandhage, A. Gruverman, E. Riedo, N. Bassiri-Gharb, “Direct Patterning of Arbitrary-Shaped Ferroelectric Nanostructures on Platinized Silicon and Glass Substrates,” Adv. Mater., 23 (33) 3786-3790 (2011). (Inside Front Cover)
  29. J. D. Berrigan, T.-S. Kang, Y. Cai, J. R. Deneault, M. F. Durstock, K. H. Sandhage, “Protein-Enabled Layer-by-Layer Syntheses of Aligned, Porous-Wall, High-Aspect-Ratio TiO2 Nanotube Arrays,” Adv. Funct. Mater., 21, 1693-1700 (2011). (Inside Front Cover)
  30. R. A. Gittens I., T. McLachlan, Y. Cai, S. Berner, R. Tannenbaum, Z. Schwartz, K. H. Sandhage, B. D. Boyan, “The Effects of Combined Micron-/Submicron-scale Surface Roughness and Nanoscale Features on Cell Proliferation and Differentiation,” Biomater., 32, 3395-3403 (2011).
  31. H. Cheun, J. B. Kim, Y. H. Zhou, Y. Fang, A. Dindar, J. Shim, C. Fuentes-Hernandez, K. H. Sandhage, B. Kippelen, “Inverted Polymer Solar Cells with Amorphous Indium Zinc Oxide as the Electron-Collecting Electrode,” Optics Express, 18 [104] A506-A512 (2010).
  32. J. P. Vernon, Y. Fang, Y. Cai, K. H. Sandhage, “Morphology-preserving Conversion of a 3D Bio-organic Template into a Nanocrystalline Multicomponent Oxide Compound,” Angew. Chem. Intl. Ed., 49, 7765-7768 (2010).
  33. K. H. Sandhage, “Materials ‘Alchemy’: Shape-preserving Chemical Transformation of Micro-to-Macroscopic 3-D Structures,” JOM, 62 [6] 32-43 (2010).
  34. S. Shian, K. H. Sandhage, “Hexagonal and Cubic TiOF2,” J. Appl. Crystall., 43 [4] 757-761 (2010).
  35. B. Hatton, L. Mishchenko, S. Davis, K. H. Sandhage, J. Aizenberg, “Assembly of Large Area, Highly Ordered, Crack Free Inverse Opal Films,” Proc. Nat. Acad. Sci., 107 [23] 10354-10359 (2010).
  36. D. W. Lipke, Y. Zhang, Y. Liu, B. C. Church, K. H. Sandhage, “Near Net Shape/Net Dimension ZrC/W-based Composites with Complex Geometries via Rapid Prototyping and Displacive Compensation of Porosity (DCP),” J. Euro. Ceram. Soc., 30, 2265-2277 (2010).
  37. N. Kröger, K. H. Sandhage, “From Diatom Biomolecules to Bio-inspired Syntheses of Silica- and Titania-based Materials,” MRS Bull., 35 [2] 122-126 (2010).
  38. Y. Fang, Q. Wu, M. B. Dickerson, Y. Cai, S. Shian, J. D. Berrigan, N. Poulsen, N. Kröger, K. H. Sandhage, “Protein-Mediated Layer-by-Layer Syntheses of Freestanding Microscale Titania Structures with Biologically-assembled 3-D Morphologies,” Chem. Mater., 21 [24] 5704-5710 (2009).
  39. S. Shian, K. H. Sandhage, “A Gas-Tight, Cu Ka X-ray Transparent Reaction Chamber for High Temperature X-ray Diffraction Analyses of Halide Gas/Solid Reactions,” Rev. Sci. Instr., 80, 115108/1-115108/7 (2009).
  40. G. Wang, Y. Fang, P. Kim, A. Hayek, M. R. Weatherspoon, J. W. Perry, K. H. Sandhage, S. R. Marder, S. C. Jones, “Layer-by-Layer Dendritic Growth of Hyperbranched Thin Films for Surface Sol-Gel Syntheses of Conformal, Functional, Nanocrystalline Oxide Coatings on Complex 3-D (Bio)Silica Templates,” Adv. Funct. Mater., 19 [17] 2768-2776 (2009). (Frontispiece)
  41. Y. Liu, D. W. Lipke, Y. Zhang, K. H. Sandhage, “The Kinetics of Incongruent Reduction of Tungsten Carbide (WC) via Reaction with a Hafnium-Copper (Hf-Cu) Melt,” Acta Mater., 57, 3924-3931 (2009).
  42. Z. Bao, E. M. Ernst, S. Yoo, K. H. Sandhage, “Syntheses of Porous Self-Supporting Metal Nanoparticle Assemblies with 3-D Morphologies Inherited from Biosilica Templates (Diatom Frustules),” Adv. Mater., 21 [4] 474-478 (2009).
  43. R. F. Shepherd, P. Panda, Z. Bao, K. H. Sandhage, J. A. Lewis, P. S. Doyle, “Stop-Flow Lithography of Colloidal, Glass, and Silicon Microcomponents,” Adv. Mater., 20 [24] 4734-4739 (2008).
  44. M. B. Dickerson, K. H. Sandhage, R. R. Naik, “The Protein and Peptide-Directed Syntheses of Inorganic Materials,” Chem. Rev., 108 (11) 4935-4978 (2008).
  45. Y. Fang, N. Poulsen, M. B. Dickerson, Y. Cai, S. E. Jones, R. R. Naik, N. Kröger, K. H. Sandhage, “Identification of Peptides Capable of Inducing the Formation of Titania but not Silica via a Subtractive Bacteriophage Display Approach,” J. Mater. Chem., 18, 3871-3875 (2008).
  46. C. M. Carney, S. A. Akbar, Y. Cai, S. Yoo, K. H. Sandhage, “Reactive Conversion of Polycrystalline SnO2 into Single Crystal SnO2 Nanofiber Arrays at Low Oxygen Partial Pressure,” J. Mater. Res., 23 [10] 2639-2644 (2008).
  47. M. R. Weatherspoon, Y. Cai, M. Crne, M. Srinivasarao, K. H. Sandhage, “3-D Rutile Titania-based Structures with Morpho Butterfly Wing Scale Morphologies,” Angew. Chemie Int. Ed., 47, 7921-7923 (2008).
  48. M. B. Dickerson, S. E. Jones, Y. Cai, G. Ahmad, R. R. Naik, N. Kröger, K. H. Sandhage, “Identification and Design of Peptides for the Rapid, High Yield Formation of Nanoparticulate TiO2 from Aqueous Solutions at Room Temperature,” Chem. Mater., 20 [4] 1578-1584 (2008).
  49. G. Ahmad, M. B. Dickerson, Y. Cai, S. E. Jones, E. M. Ernst, M. S. Haluska, Y. Fang, J. Wang, G. Subramanyam, R. R. Naik, K. H. Sandhage, “Rapid Bio-Enabled Formation of Ferroelectric BaTiO3 at Room Temperature from an Aqueous Salt Solution at Near Neutral pH,” J. Am. Chem. Soc., 130 [1] 4-5 (2008).
  50. A. D. Mann, R. R Naik, H. C. DeLong, K. H. Sandhage, “Biomimetic and Bio-Enabled Materials Science and Engineering: Introduction,” J. Mater. Res., 23 [12] 3137-3139 (2008).
  51. M. R. Weatherspoon, M. B. Dickerson, G. Wang, Y. Cai, S. Shian, S. C. Jones, S. R. Marder, K. H. Sandhage, “Thin, Conformal, and Continuous SnO2 Coatings on Hydroxyl-Amplified Biosilica (Diatom) Templates via Layer-by-Layer Alkoxide Deposition,” Angew. Chem. Int. Ed., 46, 5724-5727 (2007).
  52. Y. Cai, M. B. Dickerson, M. S. Haluska, Z. Kang, C. J. Summers, K. H. Sandhage, “Manganese-doped Zinc Orthosilicate-bearing Phosphor Microparticles with Controlled 3-D Shapes Derived from Diatom Frustules,” J. Am. Ceram. Soc., 90 [4] 1304-1308 (2007).
  53. E. M. Ernst, B. C. Church, C. S. Gaddis, R. L. Snyder, K. H. Sandhage, “Enhanced Hydrothermal Conversion of Surfactant-modified Diatom Microshells into Barium Titanate Replicas,” J. Mater. Res., 22 [5] 1121-1127 (2007).
  54. S.-J. Lee, S. Shian, Ch.-H. Huang, K. H. Sandhage, “Rapid, Non-Photocatalytic Destruction of Organophosphorous Esters Induced by Nanostructured Titania-based Replicas of Diatom Microshells,” J. Am. Ceram. Soc., 90 [5] 1632-1636 (2007).
  55. Z. Bao, M. R. Weatherspoon, Y. Cai, S. Shian, P. D. Graham, S. M. Allan, G. Ahmad, M. B. Dickerson, B. C. Church, Z. Kang, C. J. Summers, H. W. Abernathy, III, M. Liu, K. H. Sandhage, “Shape-preserving Reduction of Silica Micro-Assemblies into Microporous Silicon Replicas,” Nature, 446 [3] 172-175 (2007).
  56. U. Kusari, Z. Bao, Y. Cai, G. Ahmad, K. H. Sandhage, L. G. Sneddon, “Formation of Nanostructured, Nanocrystalline Boron Nitride Microparticles with Diatom-Derived 3-D Shapes,” Chem. Comm., [11] 1177-1179 (2007).
  57. N. Kroger, M. B. Dickerson, G. Ahmad, Y. Cai, M. S. Haluska, K. H. Sandhage, N. Poulsen, V. C. Sheppard, “Bio-enabled Synthesis of Rutile (TiO2) at Ambient Temperature and Neutral pH,” Angew. Chem. Int. Ed., 45, 7239-7243 (2006).
  58. A. W. Schill, C. S. Gaddis, W. Qian, M. A. El-Sayed Y. Cai, V. T. Milam, K. H. Sandhage, “Ultrafast Electronic Relaxation and Charge Carrier Localization in CdS/CdSe/CdS Quantum Dot Heterostructures,” Nano Lett., 6 [9] 1940-1949 (2006).
  59. G. Ahmad, M. B. Dickerson, B. C. Church, Y. Cai, S. E. Jones, R. R. Naik, J. S. King, C. J. Summers, N. Kroger, K. H. Sandhage, “Rapid, Room-Temperature Formation of Crystalline Calcium Molybdate Phosphor Microparticles via Peptide-Induced Precipitation,” Adv. Mater., 18, 1759-1763 (2006).
  60. E. Koep, C. Jin, M. S. Haluska, R. Das, R. Narayan, K. H. Sandhage, R. L. Snyder, M. Liu, “Microstructure and Electrochemical Properties of Cathode Materials for SOFCs Prepared via Pulsed Laser Deposition,” J. Power Sources, 161 [1] 250-255 (2006).
  61. S. Yoo, H. Rick, K. H. Sandhage, S. A. Dregia, S. A. Akbar, “Kinetic Mechanism of TiO2 Nanocarving via Reaction with Hydrogen Gas,” J. Mater. Res., 21 [7] 1822-1829 (2006).
  62. H. R. Luckarift, M. B. Dickerson, K. H. Sandhage, J. C. Spain, “Rapid, Room-Temperature Synthesis of Anti-bacterial Bio-nano-composites of Lysozyme with Amorphous Silica or Titania,” Small, 2 [5] 640-643 (2006). (Cover Article)
  63. M. R. Weatherspoon, M. S. Haluska, Y. Cai, J. S. King, C. J. Summers, R. L. Snyder, K. H. Sandhage, “Phosphor Microparticles of Controlled 3-D Shape from Phytoplankton,” J. Electrochem. Soc., 153 [2] H34-H37 (2006).
  64. S. Shian, Y. Cai, M. R. Weatherspoon, S. M. Allan, K. H. Sandhage, “Three-Dimensional Assemblies of Zirconia Nanocrystals via Shape-preserving Reactive Conversion of Diatom Microshells,” J. Am. Ceram. Soc., 89 [2] 694-698 (2006).
  65. M. S. Haluska, I. Dragomir, K. H. Sandhage, and R. L. Snyder, “X-ray Diffraction Analyses of 3-D MgO-based Replicas of Diatom Microshells Synthesized by a Low-Temperature Gas/Solid Displacement Reaction,” Powder Diff., 20 [4] 306-310 (2005).
  66. M. S. Haluska, R. L. Snyder, K. H. Sandhage, S. T. Misture, “A Closed, Heated Reaction Chamber Design for Dynamic High-Temperature X-ray Diffraction Analyses of Gas/Solid Displacement Reactions,” Rev. Sci. Instr., 76, 126101-1 - 126101-4 (2005).
  67. Y. Cai, K. H. Sandhage, “Zn2SiO4-coated Microparticles with Biologically-controlled 3-D Shapes,” Phys. Stat. Sol. (a), 202 [10] R105-R107 (2005). (Cover Article)
  68. K. H. Sandhage, R. L. Snyder, G. Ahmad, S. M. Allan, Y. Cai, M. B. Dickerson, C. S. Gaddis, M. S. Haluska, S. Shian, M. R. Weatherspoon, R. A. Rapp, R. R. Unocic, F. M. Zalar, Y. Zhang, M. Hildebrand, B. P. Palenik, “Merging Biological Self-assembly with Synthetic Chemical Tailoring: The Potential for 3-D Genetically-Engineered Micro/nanodevices (3-D GEMS),” Int. J. Appl. Ceram. Technol., 2 [4] 317-326 (2005).
  69. . Y. Cai, S. M. Allan, F. M. Zalar, K. H. Sandhage, “Three-dimensional Magnesia-based Nanocrystal Assemblies via Low-Temperature Magnesiothermic Reaction of Diatom Microshells,” J. Am. Ceram. Soc., 88 [7] 2005-2010 (2005).
  70. M. R. Weatherspoon, S. M. Allan, E. Hunt, Y. Cai, K. H. Sandhage, “Sol-Gel Synthesis on Self-Replicating Single-Cell Scaffolds: Applying Complex Chemistries to Nature’s 3-D Nanostructured Templates,” Chem. Comm., [5] 651-653 (2005).
  71. J. Zhao, C. S. Gaddis, Y. Cai, K. H. Sandhage, “Free-standing Microscale Structures of Zirconia Nanocrystals with Biologically Replicable 3-D Shapes,” J. Mater. Res., 20 [2] 282-287 (2005).
  72. M. B. Dickerson, R. R. Naik, P. M. Sarosi, G. Agarwal, M. O. Stone, K. H. Sandhage, “Ceramic Nanoparticle Assemblies with Tailored Shapes and Tailored Chemistries via Biosculpting and Shape-preserving Inorganic Conversion,” J. Nanosci. Nanotech., 5 [1], 63-67 (2005).
  73. C. S. Gaddis, K. H. Sandhage, “Freestanding Microscale 3-D Polymeric Structures with Biologically-derived Shapes and Nanoscale Features,” J. Mater. Res., 19 [9], 2541-2545 (2004).
  74. M. B. Dickerson, R. R. Naik, M. O. Stone, Y. Cai, and K. H. Sandhage, “Identification of Peptides that Promote the Rapid Precipitation of Germania Nanoparticle Networks via Use of a Peptide Display Library,” Chem. Comm., 15, 1776-1777 (2004).
  75. S. Yoo, S. A. Akbar, K. H. Sandhage, “Nanocarving of Titania (TiO2): A Novel Approach for Fabricating a Chemical Sensing Platform,” Ceram. Int., 30 [7] 1121-1126 (2004).
  76. M. B. Dickerson, P. J. Wurm, J. R. Schorr, W. P. Hoffman, E. Hunt, K. H. Sandhage, “Near Net-Shaped, Ultra-High Melting, Recession-Resistant Rocket Nozzles Liners via the Displacive Compensation of Porosity (DCP) Method,” J. Mater. Sci., 39 (19) 6005-6015 (2004).
  77. R. R. Unocic, F. M. Zalar, P. M. Sarosi, Y. Cai, and K. H. Sandhage, “Anatase Assemblies from Algae: Coupling Biological Self-assembly of 3-D Nanoparticle Structures with Synthetic Reaction Chemistry,” Chem. Comm., [7] 795-796 (2004).
  78. S. Yoo, S. A. Akbar, K. H. Sandhage, “Oriented Single Crystal Titania Nanofibers via Nanocarving with Hydrogen-bearing Gas,” Adv. Mater., 16 [3] 260-264 (2004).
  79. Z. Grzesik, M. B. Dickerson, K. H. Sandhage, “The Incongruent Reduction of Tungsten Carbide by a Zirconium-Copper Melt,” J. Mater. Res., 18 [9] 2135-2140 (2003).
  80. N. A. Travitzky, P. Kumar, K. H. Sandhage, R. Janssen, N. Claussen, “In Situ Synthesis of Al2O3 Reinforced Ni-based Composites,” Adv. Eng. Mater., 5 [4] 256-259 (2003).
  81. N. Travitzky, P. Kumar, K. H. Sandhage, R. Janssen, and N. Claussen, ”Rapid Syntheses of Al2O3 Reinforced Fe-Cr-Ni Composites,” Mater. Sci. Eng. A, A344, 245-252 (2003).
  82. K. H. Sandhage, M. B. Dickerson, P. M. Huseman, M. A. Caranna, J. D. Clifton, T. A. Bull, T. J. Heibel, W. R. Overton, M. E. A. Schoenwaelder, “Novel, Bioclastic Route to Self-Assembled, 3-D, Chemically Tailored Meso/Nanostructures: Shape-Preserving Reactive Conversion of Biosilica (Diatom) Microshells,” Adv. Mater., 14 [6] 429-433 (2002).
  83. M. B. Dickerson, R. L. Snyder, and K. H. Sandhage, “Dense, Near Net-Shaped, Carbide/Refractory Metal Composites at Modest Temperatures by the Displacive Compensation of Porosity (DCP) Method,” J. Am. Ceram. Soc., 85 [3] 730-732 (2002).
  84. M. B. Dickerson, K. H. Sandhage, “Low-Temperature Reaction Casting of Dense, Near Net-Shaped Carbide/Refractory Metal Composites with Tailored Phase Contents,” Latin Am. J. Metall. Mater., 21 [1] 18-24 (2001).
  85. P. Kumar, N. A. Travitsky, P. Beyer, K. H. Sandhage, R. Janssen, N. Claussen, “Reactive Casting of Ceramic Composites (R-3C),” Scripta Mater., 44 [5] 751-757 (2001).
  86. S. Vilayannur, K. H. Sandhage, “Selective Internal Oxidation of the Noble-Metal-Rich Intermetallic Compound, BaAg5,” Oxid. Met., 55 [1,2] 87-103 (2001).
  87. R. Citak, M. Turker, K. H. Sandhage, "Effect of Mechanical Alloying Duration on the Microstructure in Composites Produced Via Oxidation of Ba-Al Powders,” Turkish J. Eng. Environmental Sci., 25 [3] 205-210 (2001).
  88. S. Vilayannur, K. H. Sandhage, S. Dregia, “Selective External Oxidation of the Intermetallic Compound, BaAg5,” J. Electrochem. Soc., 147 [7] 2805-2813 (2000).
  89. P. I. Gouma, M. J. Mills, K. H. Sandhage, “The Fabrication of Free-Standing Titania-based Gas Sensors by the Oxidation of Metallic Titanium Foils,” J. Am. Ceram. Soc., 83 [4] 1007-1009 (2000).
  90. K. H. Sandhage, S. M. Allameh, P. Kumar, H. J. Schmutzler, D. Viers, X.-D. Zhang, “Near Net-Shaped, Alkaline-Earth-bearing Ceramics for Electronic and Refractory Applications via the Oxidation of Solid, Metal-bearing Precursors (the VIMOX Process),” Mater. & Manuf. Proc., 15 [1] 1-28 (2000).
  91. E. Saw, K. H. Sandhage, P. K. Gallagher, A. S. Litsky, “Near Net-Shaped Calcium Hydroxyapatite by the Oxidation of Machinable, Ca-bearing Precursors (the Volume Identical Metal Oxidation, or VIMOX, Process),” J. Am. Ceram. Soc., 83 [4] 998-1000 (2000).
  92. T. J. Detrie, K. H. Sandhage, “The Fabrication of Bi2Sr2Ca1Cu2O8±x/Ag Superconducting Tapes by the Oxidation and Post-Oxidation (Partial Melt) Annealing of Malleable, Metal-Bearing Precursors,” J. Mater. Res., 15 [2] 306-316 (2000).
  93. E. Saw, K. H. Sandhage, P. K. Gallagher, A. S. Litsky, “The Fabrication of Near Net-Shaped Hydroxyapatite Ceramics by the Oxidation of Solid, Metal-bearing Precursors,” Mater. & Manuf. Proc., 15 [1] 29-46 (2000).


  1. K. H. Sandhage, Z. Bao, "Methods of Fabricating Nanoscale-to-Microscale Structures" U.S. Patent No. 7,615,206, November 10, 2009.
  2. K. H. Sandhage, "Shaped Microcomponents via Reactive Conversion of Synthetic Microtemplates" U.S. Patent No. 7,393,517, July 1, 2008.
  3. S. A. Akbar, S. Yoo, K. H. Sandhage, "Method of Forming Nanostructures on Ceramics" U.S. Patent No. 7,303,723, Dec. 4, 2007.
  4. K. H. Sandhage, "Shaped Microcomponents via Reactive Conversion of Biologically-derived Microtemplates" U.S. Patent No. 7,204,971, April 17, 2007.
  5. K. H. Sandhage, "Shaped Microcomponents via Reactive Conversion of Biologically-derived Microtemplates" U.S. Patent No. 7,067,104, June 27, 2006.
  6. K. H. Sandhage, P. Kumar, "Method for Fabricating Shaped Monolithic Ceramics and Ceramic Composites through Displacive Compensation of Porosity, and Ceramics and Composites made Thereby" U. S. Patent No. 6,833,337, December 21, 2004.
  7. M. J. Mills, K. H. Sandhage, P.-I. Gouma, "Free-Standing Fluid Sensors, Filters, and Catalyst Devices, and Methods Involving Same" U.S. Patent No. 6,689,322, Feb. 10, 2004.
  8. M. J. Mills, K. H. Sandhage, P.-I. Gouma, "Free-Standing Fluid Sensors, Filters, and Catalyst Devices, and Methods Involving Same" U.S. Patent No. 6,682,700, Jan. 27, 2004.
  9. K. H. Sandhage, R. L. Snyder, "Electrolysis Apparatus and Methods Using Urania in Electrodes, and Methods of Producing Reduced Substances, from Oxidized Substances, Including the Electrowinning of Aluminum" U.S. Patent No. 6,616,826, Sept. 9, 2003.
  10. K. H. Sandhage, R. R. Unocic, M. B. Dickerson, M. Timberlake, K. Guerra, "Method for Fabricating High-Melting, Wear-Resistant Ceramics and Ceramic Composites at Low Temperatures, U.S. Patent No. 6,598,656, July 29, 2003.
  11. K. H. Sandhage, P. Kumar, "Method for Fabricating Shaped Monolithic Ceramics and Ceramic Composites through Displacive Compensation of Porosity, and Ceramics and Composites made Thereby" U. S. Patent No. 6,407,022, June 18, 2002.
  12. K. H. Sandhage, "Method for Oxygenating Oxide Superconductive Materials" U.S. Patent No. 6,284,713, Sept. 4, 2001.
  13. N. Claussen, K. H. Sandhage, P. Kumar, R. Janssen, P. Beyer, F. Wagner, N. Travitsky, "Die Casting of Refractory Metal-Ceramic Composite Materials" European Patent No. 1,252,349, German Patent No. 10,047,384, Aug. 9, 2001.
  14. . E. R. Podtburg, K. H. Sandhage, A. Otto, L. J. Masur, C. A. Craven, J. D. Schreiber, "Oxide Superconductor Precursors" U.S. Patent No. 6,219,901, April 24, 2001.
  15. K. H. Sandhage, "Method for Oxygenating Oxide Superconductive Materials" U.S. Patent No. 6,153,561, Nov. 28, 2000.
  16. K. H. Sandhage, R. L. Snyder, "Electrodes, Electrolysis Apparatus and Methods Using Uranium-bearing Ceramic Electrodes, and Methods of Producing a Metal from a Metal Compound, Dissolved in a Molten Salt, Including Electrowinning of Aluminum" U.S. Patent No. 6,146,513, Nov. 14, 2000.
  17. A. Otto, L. J. Masur, E. R. Podtburg, K. H. Sandhage, "High Pressure Oxidation of Precursor Alloys" U.S. Patent No. 6,066,599, May 23, 2000.
  18. E. R. Podtburg, K. H. Sandhage, A. Otto, L. J. Masur, C. A. Craven, J. D. Schreiber, "Composite Metal Preforms for Oxidation to Manufacture High-Temperature Superconductors" U. S. Patent No. 5,851,957, Dec. 22, 1998.
  19. J. Gilliland, A. Morrow, K. H. Sandhage, "Radiation Resistant Optical Waveguide Fiber" U. S. Patent No. 5,681,365, October 28, 1997.
  20. J. Gilliland, A. Morrow, K. H. Sandhage, "Radiation Resistant Optical Waveguide Fiber" U. S. Patent No. 5,509,101, April 16, 1996.
  21. A. Otto, L. Masur, E. Potdburg, K. H. Sandhage, "High Pressure Oxidation of Precursor Alloys" U. S. Patent No. 5,472,527, Dec. 5, 1995.
  22. K. H. Sandhage, "Processes for Fabricating Structural Ceramic Bodies and Structural Ceramic-Bearing Composite Bodies" U. S. Patent No. 5,447,291, Sept. 5, 1995.
  23. K. H. Sandhage, "Electroceramics and Process for Making the Same" U. S. Patent No. 5,318,725, June 7, 1994.
  24. K. H. Sandhage, "A Process for Making Ceramic/Metal and Ceramic/Ceramic Laminates by the Oxidation of a Metal Precursor" U. S. Patent No. 5,259,885, Nov. 9, 1993.
  25. D. R. Powers, K. H. Sandhage, M. J. Stalker, "Method for Making a Preform Doped with a Metal Oxide" U. S. Patent No. 5,203,897, Apr. 20, 1993.
  26. G. D. Smith, G. McKimpson, L. J. Masur, K. H. Sandhage, "Process for Forming Superconductor Precursor" U. S. Patent No. 5,034,373, July, 23, 1991.

John Reynolds

Professor, School of Chemistry and Biochemistry

Contact Information

MoSE 2120B

Dr. Reynolds' research interests have involved electrically conducting and electroactive conjugated polymers for over 30 years with work focused to the development of new polymers by manipulating their fundamental organic structure in order to control their optoelectronic and redox properties.

1. Patel, D.G., Graham, K.R., Reynolds, J.R. J. Mater. Chem. 2012, 22(7), 3004. "A Diels–Alder crosslinkable host polymer for improved PLED performance: the impact on solution processed doped device and multilayer device performance." 

2. Knott, E.P., Craig, M.R., Liu, D.Y., Babiarz, J.E., Dyer, A.L., Reynolds, J.R. J. Mater. Chem. 2012, 22(11), 4953. "A minimally coloured dioxypyrrole polymer as a counter electrode material in polymeric electrochromic window devices." 

3. Stalder, R., Grand, C., Subbiah, J., So, F., Reynolds, J.R. Polymer Chemistry 2012, 3(1), 89. "An isoindigo and dithieno[3,2-b:2′,3′-d]silole copolymer for polymer solar cells."

4. Small, C.E., Chen, S., Subbiah, J., Amb, C.M., Tsang, S.-W., Lai, T.-H., Reynolds, J.R., So, F. Nature Photonics 2012, 6(2), 115. "High-efficiency inverted dithienogermole–thienopyrrolodione-based polymer solar cells."

5. Jensen, J., Dam, H.F., Reynolds, J.R., Dyer, A.L., Krebs, F.C. J. Polym. Sci. B Polym. Phys. 2012, 50(8), 536. "Manufacture and demonstration of organic photovoltaic-powered electrochromic displays using roll coating methods and printable electrolytes."

6. Amb, C.M., Craig, M.R., Koldemir, U., Subbiah, J., Choudhury, K.R., Gevorgyan, S.A., Jørgensen, M., Krebs, F.C., So, F., Reynolds, J.R. ACS Appl. Mater. Int. 2012, 4(3), 1847. "Aesthetically Pleasing Conjugated Polymer:Fullerene Blends for Blue-Green Solar Cells Via Roll-to-Roll Processing." 

7. Sun, Y., Chen, Z., Puodziukynaite, E., Jenkins, D.M., Reynolds, J.R., Schanze, K.S. Macromolecules 2012, 45(6), 2632. "Light Harvesting Arrays of Polypyridine Ruthenium(II) Chromophores Prepared by Reversible Addition–Fragmentation Chain Transfer Polymerization."

8. Subbiah, J., Amb, C.M., Irfan, I., Gao, Y., Reynolds, J.R., So, F. ACS Appl. Mater. Inter. 2012, 4(2), 866. "High-Efficiency Inverted Polymer Solar Cells with Double Interlayer." 

9. Patel, D.G., Feng, F., Ohnishi, Y.-ya, Abboud, K.A., Hirata, S., Schanze, K.S., Reynolds, J.R. J. Am. Chem. Soc. 2012, 134(5), 2599. "It Takes More Than an Imine: The Role of the Central Atom on the Electron-Accepting Ability of Benzotriazole and Benzothiadiazole Oligomers." 

10. Ertas, M., Walczak, R.M., Das, R.K., Rinzler, A.G., Reynolds, J.R. Chem. Mater. 2012, 24(3), 433. "Supercapacitors Based on Polymeric Dioxypyrroles and Single Walled Carbon Nanotubes." 

11. Puodziukynaite, E., Oberst, J.L., Dyer, A.L., Reynolds, J.R. J. Am. Chem. Soc. 2012, 134(2), 968. "Establishing Dual Electrogenerated Chemiluminescence and Multicolor Electrochromism in Functional Ionic Transition-Metal Complexes." 

12. Aitken, B.S., Wieruszewski, P.M., Graham, K.R., Reynolds, J.R., Wagener, K.B. Macromolecules 2012, 45(2), 705. "Perfectly Regioregular Electroactive Polyolefins: Impact of Inter-Chromophore Distance on PLED EQE." 

13. Beaujuge, P.M., Vasilyeva, S.V., Liu, D.Y., Ellinger, S., McCarley, T.D., Reynolds, J.R. Chem. Mater. 2012, 24(2), 255. "Structure-Performance Correlations in Spray-Processable Green Dioxythiophene-Benzothiadiazole Donor–Acceptor Polymer Electrochromes." 

14. Graham, K.R., Yang, Y., Sommer, J.R., Shelton, A.H., Schanze, K.S., Xue, J., Reynolds, J.R. Chem. Mater. 2011, 23(24), 5305. "Extended Conjugation Platinum(II) Porphyrins for use in Near-Infrared Emitting Organic Light Emitting Diodes." 

15. Arroyave, F.A., Reynolds, J.R. J. Org. Chem. 2011, 76(21), 8621. "Synthesis of π-Conjugated Molecules Based on 3,4-Dioxypyrroles via Pd-Mediated Decarboxylative Cross-Coupling." 

16. Ellinger, S., Graham, K.R., Shi, P., Farley, R.T., Steckler, T.T., Brookins, R.N., Taranekar, P., Mei, J., Padilha, L.A., Ensley, T.R., Hu, H., Webster, S., Hagan, D.J., Van Stryland, E.W., Schanze, K.S., Reynolds, J.R. Chem. Mater. 2011, 23(17), 3805. "Donor–Acceptor–Donor-based π-Conjugated Oligomers for Nonlinear Optics and Near-IR Emission." 

17. Stalder, R., Mei, J., Subbiah, J., Grand, C., Estrada, L.A., So, F., Reynolds, J.R. Macromolecules 2011, 44(16), 6303. "n-Type Conjugated Polyisoindigos."

18. Amb, C.M., Chen, S., Graham, K.R., Subbiah, J., Small, C.E., So, F., Reynolds, J.R. J. Am. Chem. Soc. 2011, 133(26), 10062. "Dithienogermole As a Fused Electron Donor in Bulk Heterojunction Solar Cells." 

19. Dyer, A.L., Thompson, E.J., Reynolds, J.R. ACS Appl. Mater. Int. 2011, 3(6), 1787. "Completing the Color Palette with Spray-Processable Polymer Electrochromics." 

20. Mei, J., Graham, K.R., Stalder, R., Tiwari, S.P., Cheun, H., Shim, J., Yoshio, M., Nuckolls, C., Kippelen, B., Castellano, R.K., Reynolds, J.R. Chem. Mater. 2011, 23(9), 2285. "Self-Assembled Amphiphilic Diketopyrrolopyrrole-Based Oligothiophenes for Field-Effect Transistors and Solar Cells." 

21. Bricaud, Q., Fabre, R.M., Brookins, R.N., Schanze, K.S., Reynolds, J.R. Langmuir 2011, 27(8), 5021. "Energy Transfer between Conjugated Polyelectrolytes in Layer-by-Layer Assembled Films." 

22. Mavrinskiy, A., Nielsen, C.B., Reynolds, J.R., Müllen, K., Pisula, W. Chem. Mater. 2011, 23(7), 1939. "Influence of the Alkyl Mantle on the Self-Assembly of Phenylene−Thienylene-Based Oligomers." 

23. Vasilyeva, S.V., Beaujuge, P.M., Wang, S., Babiarz, J.E., Ballarotto, V.W., Reynolds, J.R. ACS Appl. Mater. Int. 2011, 3(4), 1022. "Material Strategies for Black-to-Transmissive Window-Type Polymer Electrochromic Devices." 

24. Graham, K.R., Mei, J., Stalder, R., Shim, J., Cheun, H., Steffy, F., So, F., Kippelen, B., Reynolds, J.R. ACS Appl. Mater. Int. 2011, 3(4), 1210. "Polydimethylsiloxane as a Macromolecular Additive for Enhanced Performance of Molecular Bulk Heterojunction Organic Solar Cells." 

25. Amb, C.M., Dyer, A.L., Reynolds, J.R. Chem. Mater. 2011, 23(3), 397. "Navigating the Color Palette of Solution-Processable Electrochromic Polymers."

Mary Lynn Realff

Associate Professor & Assoc. Chair for Undergrad Programs

Contact Information

MRDC 4510

Dr. Mary Lynn Realff is an Associate Professor of Materials Science and Engineering at Georgia Institute of Technology (Georgia Tech). She received her BS Textile Engineering from Georgia Tech and her PhD in Mechanical Engineering and Polymer Science & Engineering from the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT). At Georgia Tech, she teaches graduate and undergraduate courses in the mechanics of textile structures and polymer science areas. Dr. Realff has made a significant contribution to the understanding of the mechanical behavior of woven fabrics.

Dong Qin

Associate Professor

Contact Information

MoSE 3100 N

Dr. Qin is an Associate Professor in the School of Materials Science and Engineering at Georgia Institute of Technology. Her academic records include a B.S. in chemistry from Fudan University, a Ph.D. in physical chemistry from the University of Pennsylvania, a postdoctoral stint in materials science at Harvard University, and an MBA from the University of Washington.

A list of publication is available at

Selected Publications:

Galvanic replacement-free deposition of Au on Ag for core-shell nanocubes with enhanced chemical stability and SERS activity, Y. Yang; J. Liu; Z. Fu; and D. Qin, JACS, 136, 8153-8156, (2014).

Transformation of Ag nanocubes into Ag-Au hollow nanostructures with enriched Ag contents to improve SERS activity and chemical stability, Y. Yang; Q. Zhang; Z. Fu; and D. Qin, ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces, 6, 3750-3757, (2014).

The role of etching in the formation of Ag nanoplates with straight, curved and wavy edges and comparison of their SERS properties, Y. Yang; X. L. Zhong; Q. Zhang; L. G. Blackstad; Z. Fu; Z. Y. Li; and D. Qin, Small, 10, 1430-1437, (2014).

Citrate-free synthesis of Ag nanoplates and the mechanistic study, Q. Zhang; Y. Yang; J. R. Li; R. Iurilli; S. Xie, and D. Qin, ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces, 5, 6333-6345, (2013).

Christopher Muhlstein

Associate Director MPRL and Associate Professor

Contact Information

Bunger Henry 121

Dr. Muhlstein has worked as an engineering consultant at Exponent, Inc. (Failure Analysis Associates). In September, 2002 he joined the faculty in the Department of Materials Science and Engineering at The Pennsylvania State University and was tenured and promoted to associate professor in 2008. Dr. Muhlstein’s research focuses on understanding the mechanisms of fracture and fatigue in bulk and thin film materials. Dr. Muhlstein is a member of Alpha Sigma Mu and Keramos honor societies and an NSF CAREER award recipient.

Faisal Alamgir

Associate Professor

Contact Information

Love 373

Dr. Faisal Alamgir joined the School of Materials Science and Engineering at the Georgia Institute of Technology as an assistant professor in 2007.  He received his BA in physics and mathematics at Coe College and his Ph.D. in materials science and technology at Lehigh University.

Research Interests

  • Materials for Energy Storage Conversion and Harvesting
    • Surface atomic, electronic, topographical structure
    • Core-shell structures
    • Photo/electro-catalysis: fuel cells, water splitting, H2 generation
    • Storage of electrochemical energy; Alkali/alkali-earth ion batteries (eg. Li, Na, Mg ion)
    • In-situ experimental approaches material discovery for energy applications
    • Nano-textured materials for energy capture, conversion and storage
  • Nanoscopy and nano-scale structure
    • local atomic/electronic structure using synchrotron-based techniques
    • development of synchrotron-like capabilities in transmission electron microscope (TEMs), to obtain atom-specific radial distribution functions

Invited Oral Presentations 

  1. Surface to Bulk Catalytic Reactions in PEM and Solid-Oxide Fuel Cell (XAFS+ XPS), In-situ Methods of X-ray Absorption Spectroscopy workshop, Brookhaven National Laboratory, Oct. 24-26, 2013.

  2. Dimension dependent near-surface phase transitions in Pt and their effect in electrocatalytic properties, SERMACS 2013, Atlanta, Nov 12-16, 2013.

  3. Near-Surface Atomic and Electronic Structural Effects in Layer-By-Layer Derived Core-Shell Catalysts ECS, Oct 27-Nov 1.

  4. Atomistic mechanisms in Energy Materials, Oak Ridge National Laboratory (hosted by Nancy Dudney), Nov. 26, 2013.

  5. Frontiers of Energy Research as a Basis for K-12 Science Curriculum, Materials Education—Toward a Lab-to-Classroom Initiative, MRS, April 1-5, 2013.

  6. Symposium on Electrochemical Atomic Layer Epitaxy and Quantum Confinement, at the ECS PRIME meeting in Honolulu, Hawaii, October, 2012.
  7. Recent Advance in Structural Characterization of Materials: Spectroscopic Methods, MS&T 2011, Colubus, OH, Oct 2011
  8. Surface-to-bulk Structure Manipulation and the Metrology of Atomistic Processes in Energy Related Materials, NIST, Gaithersburg, MD, July 2011
  9. Symposium I: Glass Science, GOMD  May 2011, Savannah, GA
  10. Advanced Topics in XAFS Data Modeling, Brookhaven National Lab, Oct. 2010
  11. 59th Annual Denver X-ray Conference plenary lecture, Denver, Aug. 2010
  12. Science of Electrochemically Active Materials, 8 lecture series, University of Bremen, Bremen, July 2010.
  13. NSF sponsored US-Egypt advances Studies Institute, Cairo, Egypt, 2010.
  14. Local Structure Changes in Energy Related Materials under Reaction Condition, University of Ottawa, Dec. 2009.
  15. Species-specific Redox Reaction Studies in Li-ion Batteries using a Synchrotron Source, University of Georgia, Nov. 2009.
  16. Examples of Real Systems in Catalysis, Electrochemistry and Battery Research, In situ and Operando XAFS Workshop, Brookhaven National Laboratory, 2009.
  17. Joint Photon Sciences Institute Workshop: Energy Storage Research Opportunities at the National Synchrotron Light Source, BNL, NY, 2009.
  18. Future Directions for In-situ X-ray Scattering, 2009 NSLS-CFN Joint Users’ Meeting.
  19. X-ray Absorption at the Near-edge and Its Applications - International Materials Institute for New Functionality in Glass (NSF center), NY, May 2009.
  20. Atoms in motion – Colloquium at Georgia Southwestern State University, Americus, GA 2008.
  21. Tender’ X-ray Absorption Spectroscopy, 2007 NSLS-CFN Joint Users’ Meeting.
  22. Thin-film Batteries – IUMACRO-07, New York, 2007.
  23. Physical and Computational Characterization of Nanostructured Electrocatalysts – ACS, San Francisco ’06.

Scholarly Accomplishments
A. Published Book Chapters

  1.  F.M. Alamgir (corresponding author), H. Jain, D.B. Williams, R.B. Schwarz , Sub-nanoscale Structural Origins of the Stability of Pd-Ni-P Model Bulk Metallic Glass, The Science of Complex Alloy Phases, P. Turchi and T. Massalski, editors, TMS, Warrensdale, PA, 2005. 
  2. F.M. Alamgir (corresponding author) and Samson Lai, Synchrotron X-ray Based Operando Studies of Atomic and Electronic Structure in Batteries, Handbook for Solid State Batteries and Capacitors 2nd Edition, World Scientific Pub Co Inc., 2014.

B. Relevant Publications (*corresponding author)

  1. SY Lai, D Ding, M Liu, M Liu, FM Alamgir*, Operando and In situ X-ray Spectroscopies of Degradation in La0.6Sr0.4Co0.2Fe0.8O3− δ Thin Film Cathodes in Fuel Cells, ChemSusChem 7 (11), (2014) 3078-3087.
  2. MC Mangarella, JL Ewbank, MR Dutzer, FM Alamgir, KS Walton, Synthesis of embedded iron nanoparticles in Fe 3 C-derived carbons, Carbon 79, (2014) 74-84.
  3. H.A. Hamedani, N.K. Allam, MA El‐Sayed, M.A. Khaleel, H Garmestani, F.M. Alamgir, An Experimental Insight into the Structural and Electronic Characteristics of Strontium‐Doped Titanium Dioxide Nanotube Arrays, Advanced Functional Materials 24 (43), (2014) 6783-6796.
  4. AD Winter, E Larios, FM Alamgir, C Jaye, DA Fischer, EM Campo, Polymer-carbon nanotube composites: electrospinning, alignment and interactions, SPIE NanoScience+ Engineering, (2014) 91700H-91700H-7.
  5. AD Winter, E Larios, FM Alamgir, C Jaye, DA Fischer, M Omastová, EM Campo, Thermo-Active Behavior of Ethylene-Vinyl Acetate| Multiwall Carbon Nanotube Composites Examined by in Situ near-Edge X-ray Absorption Fine-Structure Spectroscopy, The Journal of Physical Chemistry C 118 (7), (2014) 3733-3741.
  6. EL Redmond, BP Setzler, FM Alamgir, TF Fuller, Elucidating the oxide growth mechanism on platinum at the cathode in PEM fuel cells, Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics 16 (11), (2014) 5301-5311.
  7. R.A. Gittens, R.O. Navarrete, R. Rettew, R.J. Butera, F.M. Alamgir, B.D. Boyan, Z. Schwartz, Electrical polarization of titanium surfaces for the enhancement of osteoblast differentiation Bioelectromagnetics 34, 8, (2013) 599-612.
  8. AD Winter, E Larios, FM Alamgir, C Jaye, DA Fischer, EM Campo, Near-Edge X-ray Absorption Fine Structure Studies of Electrospun Poly (dimethylsiloxane)/Poly (methylmethacrylate)/Multiwall Carbon Nanotube Composites,  Langmuir 29 (51), (2013) pp 15822–15830.
  9. R. Nashed, F.M. Alamgir, S.S. Jang, Y. Ismail,M.A. El-Sayed and N.K. Allam, Bandgap bowing in Ta-W-O system for efficient solar energy conversion: Insights from density functional theory and X-ray diffraction, Appl. Phys. Lett. 103, (2013) 133905.
  10. J.D. Greenlee, C.F. Petersburg, W. Daly, F.M. Alamgir*, and W.A. Doolittle, In-situ investigation of the channel conductance of a Li1-xCoO2 (0 < x < 0.5)- ionic-electronic transistor, accepted in Appl. Phys. Lett 102, (2013) 213502. DOI: 10.1063/1.4807424.
  11. R.E. Rettew, S. Cheng, M. Sauerbrey, T. Manz, D. Sholl, C. Jaye, D. Fischer, and F.M. Alamgir*, Near Surface Phase Transition of Solute Derived Pt Monolayers for Catalytic Applications, accepted in Topics in Catalysis 56, 12, (2013) 1065-1073.
  12. C.F. Petersburg,  Z. Li ,  N.A. Chernova ,  M.S. Whittingham and F.M. Alamgir*, Oxygen and transition metal involvement in the charge compensation mechanism of LiNi1/3Ni1/3Mn1/3O2 cathodes, J. Mat. Chem. A 1 (48), (2013) 15562-15562.
  13. HA Hamedani, SW Lee, A Al-Sammarraie, ZR Hesabi, A Bhatti, FM Alamgir, H Garmestani, MA Khaleel, Synthesis and growth mechanism of thin-film TiO2 nanotube arrays on focused-ion-beam micropatterned 3D isolated regions of titanium on silicon, ACS applied materials and interfaces 5 (18), (2013) 9026-9033.
  14. J.D. Greenlee , C.F. Petersburg, W.L. Calley, C. Jaye, D.A. Fischer, F.M. Alamgir*, and W. Alan Doolittle, In-situ oxygen X-ray absorption spectroscopy investigation of the resistance modulation mechanism in LiNbO2 memristors,  Appl. Phys. Lett. 100, 182106 (2012), DOI: 10.1063/1.4709422
  15. M. Liu, M.E. Lynch, K. Blinn, F.M. Alamgir, YM. Choi, Rational SOFC Material Design: New Advances and Tools, Materials Today 14, 11, (2011) 534-546.
  16. M-K Song, S. Park, FM Alamgir, J. Cho, M. Liu, Nanostructured electrodes for lithium-ion and lithium-air batteries: the latest  developments, challenges, and perspectives, Materials Science and Engineering: R: Report 22 (2011) p.203-252.
  17. S. Cheng, R.E. Rettew, M. Sauerbrey, and F.M. Alamgir*, Architecture-Dependent Surface Chemistry for Pt Monolayers on Carbon-Supported Au, ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces 3, 10, (2011) pp 3948–3956.
  18. R.E. Rettew, A. Meyer, S.D. Senanayake, T.-L. Chen, C. Petersburg, J.I. Flege, J. Falta and F.M. Alamgir*, Interactions of oxygen and ethylene with submonolayer Ag films supported on Ni(111), Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys. 13, (2011) 11034-11044.
  19. Z. Li, N. Chernova, M. Roppolo, S. Upreti, C. Petersburg, F. Alamgir, S. Whittingham, Comparative Study of the Capacity and Rate Capability of LiNiyMnyCo1–2yO2 (y50.5, 0.45, 0.4, 0.33), J. Electrochem. Soc. 158, (2011) A516-A522.
  20. R.E. Rettew, N.K. Allam, and F.M. Alamgir*, Interface Architecture Determined Electrocatalytic Activity of Pt on Vertically Oriented TiO2 Nanotubes, ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces 3, 2, (2011) 147–151.
  21. A. Meyer, J. I. Flege, R. E. Rettew, S. D. Senanayake, Th. Schmidt, F.M. Alamgir, and J. Falta, Ultrathin silver films on Ni(111), Phys. Rev. B 82, (2010) 085424.
  22. NK Allam, F Alamgir, MA El-Sayed, Enhanced photoassisted water electrolysis using vertically oriented anodically fabricated ti-nb-zr-o mixed oxide nanotube arrays, ACS NANO 4, (2010) 5819-26.
  23. C.F. Petersburg, R.C. Daniel, C. Jaye, D.A. Fischer and F.M. Alamgir*, Soft X-ray characterization technique for Li batteries under operating conditions, Journal of Synchrotron Radiation 16, (2009) 610-615.
  24. R.E. Rettew, J.W. Guthrie, and F.M. Alamgir*, Layer-by-Layer Pt Growth on Polycrystalline Au: Surface-Limited Redox Replacement of Overpotentially Deposited Ni Monolayers, Journal of The Electrochemical Society, 156, 11, (2009) D513-D516.
  25. H. Idriss, M. Scott, J. Llorca, S.C. Chan, W. Chiu, P-Y Sheng, A. Yee, M.A. Blackford, S.J. Pas, A.J. Hill, F.M. Alamgir, R. Rettew, C. Petersburg, S.D. Senanayake, M.A. Barteau, A Phenomenological Study of the Metal–Oxide Interface: The Role of Catalysis in Hydrogen Production from Renewable Resources, ChemSusChem 1, (2008) 905 – 910.
  26. J. Ziegelbauer, T. S. Olson, S. Pylypenko, F. Alamgir, C. Jaye, P. Atanassov and S. Mukerjee, Direct Spectroscopic Observation of the Structural Origin of Peroxide Generation from Co -Based Pyrolyzed Porphyrins for ORR Applications, J. Phys. Chem. C 112, 24, (2008) 8839-8849.
  27. N. Leifer, A. Colon, K. Martocci, F.M. Alamgir, T. Reddy, E. Takeuchi, S. Greenbaum, Nuclear Magnetic Resonance and X-Ray Absorption Spectroscopic Studies of Lithium Insertion in Silver Vanadium Oxide Cathodes, J. Electrochem. Soc. 154, 6 (2007) A500-A506.
  28. J.V. Sluytman, W.West, J. Whitacre, F.M. Alamgir, S. Greenbaum, Cycle-induced Degradation of LiCoO2 Thin-Film Cathodes at Elevated Temperature, Electrochimica Acta 51, (2006) 3001–3007.
  29. F.M. Alamgir*, E. Strauss, M. denBoer, S. Greenbaum, J.F. Whitacre, C.-C. Kao, S. Neih, LiCoO2 thin-film batteries: Structural changes and charge compensation, J. Electrochem. Soc. 152, 5, (2005) 845-849.
  30. H.W Sheng, W.K. Luo, F.M. Alamgir, J.M. Bai, E. Ma, Atomic packing and short-to-medium-range order in metallic glasses, Nature 439, no. 7075, (2006) 419-425.
  31. W.K. Luo, H.W. Sheng, F. Alamgir, J.M. Bai, J.H. He and E. Ma, Icosahedral short-Range order in an Amorphous Alloy, Phys. Rev. Lett. 92, 14, (2004)145502-1 – 1445502-4.
  32. F. Ronci, P.E. Stallworth, F. Alamgir, T. Schiros, J. Van Sluytman, G. Xiaodong, P. Reale, S. Greenbaum, M. denBoer, B. Scrosati, Lithium-7 nuclear magnetic resonance and Ti K-edge X-ray absorption spectroscopic investigation of electrochemical Li insertion in Li4/3 + xTi5/3O4, J. of Power Sources 5370, (2003) 1-6.
  33. F.M. Alamgir*, H. Jain, D.B. Williams, R.B. Schwarz, The structure of a metallic glass system using EXELFS and EXAFS as complementary probes, Micron 34, Issue 8 , (2003)  433-439.
  34. F.M. Alamgir*, Y. Ito, H. Jain, D.B.Williams, Philosophical Magazine Letters 81, 3, (2001) 213-222.
  35. F.M. Alamgir*, H. Jain, R.B. Schwarz, O. Jin, D.B. Williams, Electronic properties of Pd-based bulk metallic glasses: J. of Non-Cryst. Sol. 274, 1-3, (2000) 289-293.
  36. F. M. Alamgir*, H. Jain, A.C. Miller, D. B.Williams, and R.B. Schwarz, XPS analysis of bulk metallic glasses: Phil. Mag. B 79, (1999) 239-247.

C. Conference Proceedings

  1. The effect of platinum oxide growth on platinum stability in PEMFCs, ECS Transactions 50 (2), 2012, 1369-1376.
  2. Synthesis and Characterization of Monolayer Bimetallic Surfaces: A Synchrotron NEXAFS and XPS Study. ECS Transactions Vol. 19, 27, 2009, 97-106.
  3. X-ray absorption spectroscopy study of sub-nanoscale strain in thin-film Li-ion battery cathodes, Mat. Res. Soc. Symp. Proc. Vol. 822, ( 2004) S2.3.1.
  4. Defect Analysis of CuInS2 for photovoltaic applications using Extended X-ray Absorption Fine Structure (EXAFS), Mat. Res. Soc. Symp. Proc. Vol. 763, ( 2003) B1.2.1.
  5. Measured and calculated electronic structure of Ni0.4Pd0.4P0.2 and Cu0.4Pd0.4P0.2, Mat. Res. Soc. Symp. Proc. Vol. 754 (2003).
  6. EXAFS and EXELFS study of the structure of Pd-Ni-P Bulk Metallic glasses: MRS Proc. Vol. 644, (2001) L2.4.1-6.
  7. Analysis of the structure of bulk metallic glasses using EXELFS: Microscopy and Microanalysis, vol. 5, supplement 2, (1999) 138.
  8. Optimizing the metalloid content in bulk metallic glasses: MRS Proc. 580, (2000) 277.
  9. Local structural probes around high-Z elements in a solid: EXAFS vs. EXELFS: National Synschrotron Light Source Science Highlights, 2001.
  10. EXELFS as a tool for investigating the local structure of bulk glass-forming metallic alloys: Microscopy and Microanalysis, vol. 5, supplement 2, (2000) p. 194.
  11. A local probe into the atomic structure of metallic glasses using EELS: MRS Proc. 554, 15 (1999).
  12. EXELFS of metallic glasses: MRS Proc. 554, (1999) 31.